The author, , has tried to acknowledge all sources of copyrighted material here whenever possible, most of which is published on the net. The appropriate cross-reference is a code in square [] brackets which can be used to refer to the source here.

Of course the choice of references and links reflects my own biases/prejudices and interests, however inclusion of a link on this webpage still does NOT necessarily mean that I agree/disagree with the views expressed in said link.

References and Links

[aa] Aikio, Ante,

[aa1] Lexical reconstruction of Proto-Uralic

The manuscript is work-in-progress.

[aa2] On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory.

Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 91: 9–55 (2006)

"The purposes of this paper are to examine the strata of old Germanic borrowings in Saami and to discuss the prehistory and formation of the Saami language branch in the light of what is known of its contacts with Germanic as well as other language groups."

[aam] Macdonell, Arthur Anthony.

A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout.

London: Oxford University Press, 1929

courtesy of the Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[aer] >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Kurdish: An Indo-European Language
Kurdish Language and Linguistics

[ahd] The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language.

[aj] Jebson, Tony,

Learning Old English {old material}
Major Update {need Latin Extended-A characters to see properly}

[ajp] Pfiffig, Ambros Josef,

Die Etruskische Sprache, Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsansalt Graz-Austria, 1969

[ak] Korn, Agnes,

[ak1] Towards a Historical Grammar of Balochi. Studies in Balochi Historical Phonology and Vocabulary, (PhD thesis manuscript, Frankfurt a. M. 2003)

[ak2] The Ergative System in Balochi from a Typological Perspective (PDF)

[ak3] Voice and Transitivity in Complex Predicates (PDF)

[al] Lubotsky, A. (ed.)

The online database of the Indo-Aryan inherited lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project (Leiden University).

Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 1 September 2000]

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[alinei] Alinei, Mario, Prof.,

* The Paleothilic Continuty Paradigm

* Origini delle lingue d'Europa.

* Vol. I: La teoria della continuitŕ, il Mulino,1996, ISBN: 88-15-05513-4
* Vol. II:
Continuitŕ dal mesolitico all'Etŕ del ferro nelle principali aree etnolinguistiche Bologna, il Mulino, 2000, ISBN: 88-15-07386-8

* Etrusco: una forma arcaica di ungherese
Bologna, il Mulino, 2003, ISBN: 88-15-09382-6

* Ősi Kapocs : A magyar-etruszk nyelvrokonság, Allprint Kiadó, 2005

* Summary: (PDF)

"In what is probably the most interesting account of recent years, the Italian dialectologist, Mario Alinei, suggests in his new book that Etruscan is nothing more than an archaic form of Hungarian with extensive Turkic borrowings. This linguistic proposition rests on two historical/archaeological propositions – an uncontroversial one that the Etruscans came from the Carpathian basin, and a highly controversial one that identifies them as a proto-Hungarian/Uralic people." [Morris]

* Mario Alinei's reply to criticism by Dr. János György Szilágyi (PDF)

* Response to the 'scientific' arguments being used to attack Alinei and his book in Hungary by one academic.

* Colloquium 7.3: Intrusive Farmers or Indigenous Foragers: The New Debate about the Ethnolinguistic Origins of Europe, Coordinator Mario Alinei, in: Proceedings of the XIVth UISPP Congress, University of Ličge, Belgium, 2-8 September 2001, Section 7, The Mesolithic, BAR International Series 1302, Oxford 2004, pp. 77-114

[als] Simon, Andrew L.,

[als] Hungary in American History Textbooks

Site 1 (HTML), Site 2 (PDF), Site 3 (HTML)

Details the curiously dismissive, biased and sometimes downright wrong information on Hungary and her role in European affairs.

[als1] Made in Hungary: Hungarian Contributions to Universal Culture

Published by Simon Publications LLC, 1999
ISBN 0966573420, 9780966573428
456 pages. Also available @ Google Books

A novel form of history: no kings, battles or conquests, only the individual accomplishments in science & technology, arts, sports, & other fields of members of one nation.        

[am] Marcantonio, Angela, Dr.,

[am0] The Uralic Language Family: Facts, Myths and Statistics

Published by Blackwell Publishing,
2002ISBN 0631231706, 9780631231707
360 pages

[*] Ante Aikio's reaction on the Linguist List 14.1963
[*] Edward J. Vajda's more balanced review (Western Washington University) [PDF]
[*] Johanna Laakso's reaction is available here LINGUISTIC SHADOW-BOXING.

[am1] LINGUISTIC PALAEONTOLOGY: SCIENCE OR FICTION? A Case Study

"The purpose of this paper is to examine the methods of analysis that have been employed to build up the standard Uralic theory – and how the use of these methods has, I believe, so misled researchers. I believe this examination will be relevant to scientists in all disciplines that base their work on these reconstructions, as well as linguists who are responsible for establishing them. I hope to begin the process of a quantitative re-examination of other language families, including perhaps Indo-European."

[am2] Historical linguistics and the origin of the Finns: The debate between ‘traditionalists’ and ‘revolutionaries’

"...the validity of the U language family has not yet been scientifically proven thus far at the very linguistic level, contrary to what is generally claimed. Furthermore, the factual predictions of the theory are consistently contradicted by the results of other disciplines."

Bet that gets up the nose of dogmatists.

[am91] Morandi, Alessandro.

Nuovi lineamenti di lingua etrusca. Roma: erre emme, 1991

[anon] anonymous,

The Rongorongo of Easter Island

The Language of Easter Island

Rapanui-English dictionary based upon

La Tierra de Hotu Matu'a __ Historia y Etnologia de la Isla de Pascua, Gramática y Diccionario del Antiguo Idioma de la Isla. by Padre Sebastian Englert, O.F.M.Cap. Sixth edition, Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de Chile, 1993.

[ap] Parpola, Asko,

The Nâsatyas, the chariot and Proto-Aryan religion.(PDF)

Journal of Indological Studies 16-17 (2004-2005): 1-63.
Kyoto: Association for the Study of Indian Thought.

[ar] Rubin, Aaron,

A Hungarian Language Course

[art:] Róna-Tas, András,

[art:0] Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History, Central European University Press, 1999

Gives a recent and detailed exposition of what we 'know', and a good idea of the difficulties encountered in tracing pre-Settlement Magyar history.

[art:1] Nutshell Chuvash PDF

Erasmus Mundus Intensive Program
Turkic languages and cultures in Europe (TLCE)

[as] Shimunek, Andrew., (dead link)

Manchu Language
Manchu-English Online Dictionary

[as1] Szabó, Attila, Babes-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Kolozsvár-Napoca

 HUNGARIAN LOANWORDS OF ROMANIAN ORIGIN (PDF)

"This (very short) article is based on a longer paper read on February 5, 1982 in Budapest at the plenary
meeting of the Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság."

Hungarian Studies Ifl (1985),  Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

[asz] Szabolcs Szelp, André

Zur Frage eines „awarischen“ Stratums des ungarischen Wortschatzes (On the issue of an "Avar" stratum of the Hungarian vocabulary) (PDF)

Magister der Philosophie (Mag. phil.), Wien, 2010

[at] Tóth, Alfréd, Dr.,

The common Mesopotamian substrate of Hungarian and Basque site1, site2, site3

Dr. Alfréd Tóth refers to T. Majláth's Basque/Hungarian lists in this work in which he states that "T. Majláth presented several hundreds of alleged Basque-Hungarian cognates, most of which a (sic) clearly wrong."

But T. Majláth has never alleged nor claimed that his lists of "similarities" were Basque-Hungarian cognates! Any linguist would tell you that one needs to provide all those sound change rules and any necessary linguistic and historical data not to mention one's methodology to justify one's claims for having identified cognates between languages.

The very thing which Tóth fails to do in his publication because he provides no working evidence on how he arrived at his own 209 alleged Basque-Hungarian 'cognates', mostly taken from T. Majláth's pages.

By the way, the colourful map of the Basque dialects claimed to be copyrighted by Wikipedia in Toth's paper was created by the said T. Majláth. :-(

[az] Zavaroni, Adolfo., (dead link)

Etruscan Philology Online (access to the corpus of Etruscan inscriptions)

[az96] Zavaroni, Adolfo.,

I Documenti Etruschi. Reggio Emilio: Sherpa, 1996. 445 pp. 21 figs.

[bart] Berta, Árpád, and Róna-Tas, András,

Old Turkic Loan Words in Hungarian (PDF)

Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Vol 55 (1-3), 43-67 (2002)

[bd] Demiraj, B. et al.,

The online database of the Albanian inherited lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project (Leiden University).

Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 1 September 2000]

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[bes] Sisauri, Besiki,

Online English-Georgian Dictionary, [accessed 27 March 2001]

[bl] Lukács, B.,

Proto-Magyar Texts from the Middle of the Ist Millenium?

(The article has been removed.)

[bm] Majláth Béla,

MAYLÁD ISTVÁN 1502-1550, [ISTVÁN MAYLÁD 1502-1550]

Magyar Történeti Életrajzok, [Hungarian Biographical Histories], Méhner Vilmos Kiadása, 1889. [Publisher Vilmos Méhner, 1889, page 117]

Letter of Thomas Nádasdy to his wife dated 23 August 1544 - a portion of which follows, where the black text is from 1544 and blue is 1889)

letter dated 23 August 1544

[bo] Obrusanszky, Borbala,

The Hungarian billog and its parallel with paizi

"There was an unique object, the billog, in the early administration of the early Hungarian kingdom, which was used on the field of jurisdiction."

Transoxiana 10 - Julio 2005

Journal Libre de Estudiso Orientales

[bur] Burrow, T., Emeneau, M.B.,

Dravidian Etymological Dictionary. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1961

[bur84] Burrow, T., Emeneau, M.B.,

A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary. Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, Edition: 2nd ed. 1984

courtesy of the Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[bw] Weber, Brigitte, [weber_loets AT yahoo.co.uk]

German Influences on Cameroon Pidgin English, (Alpe Adria University)

This paper examines possible German influences on Cameroon Pidgin English (CPE), otherwise known as Kamtok, a rich variety of West African Pidgin English spoken in Cameroon. The rich and diverse sources of CPE reflect the historical conditions of this multiethnic and multilingual country. Research on CPE has tended to focus mainly on sociolinguistic issues, while neglecting German influences on the language. In her work, Loreto Todd (1984) briefly considers German sources in the lexicon of CPE but does not explore the link comprehensively. Our study attempts to examine possible relics of German at the lexical and grammatical levels of Kamtok, given that German colonial influence in Cameroon lasted from 1884 to 1916 during which time this language was used as a lingua franca.


[bwi] Biró, Lajos Pál, Dr. and Willer, József, Dr.,

Magyar-Angol, Iskolai És Kéziszótár, Vol. II

[cal] COMPREHENSIVE ARAMAIC LEXICON

Hebrew Union College

[cao] Krause, Todd B., Greppin, John A.C., and Slocum, Jonathan

Classical Armenian Online

Linguistics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin

[cb] Babaev, Cyril, The Indo-European Database (dead links)

[cb1] An Etymological Database of Indo-European Roots
[cb1] Etymological Dictionary of Indoeuropean Roots
[cb2] Indo-European Glossaries {accessed 24 March 2001}
[cb3] Indo-European Scripts
[cb4] Indo-European Grammars
[cb5] Materials about the Iberians and Iberian Languages

[cbs] Siren, Christopher,

Sumerian Mythology FAQ

[cdli] Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative

******************* Christopher Gwinn's site is not available ************

[cg] Gwinn, Christopher,
[cg1] ---------- An Introduction to the Gaulish Language (http://members.nbci.com/gaulishweb/)
[cg2] ---------- Proto Indo-European Studies - (http://members.nbci.com/piestudies/)

******************* C. Gregorio-Jones' site is not available ************

[cgj] Gregorio-Jones, Charles R.,

Egyptology and Near Eastern Resources {http://home.earthlink.net/~cjones3/}

**************************************************************

[Cheung] Cheung, J.,

A Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project (Leiden University).

Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 19 August 2003]

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[Chong] Chong, P.,

Ural Altaic Etymology Dictionary (old site)
Ural Altaic Etymology Dictionary (new site)

The above links have been down for maintenance for a long time.

Ural Altaic Etymology Dictionary (also died)

That's it! No more.

[cm] Gypsy-Hungarian lexicon (1893),

[gm1] http://mnytud.arts.klte.hu/szleng/egyeb/cig_szot.htm
[gm2]
http://www.mek.iif.hu/porta/szint/egyeb/szotar/ciganysz.hun

from the Great Pallas lexicon :

"Cigányok. (Külön melléklet a Nagy Lexikon IV. kötetének 360--364. lapján levo Cigánynyelv és Cigányok cikkhez. Három képmelléklettel)" (I--XLVIII. lap): A Pallas Nagy Lexikona. IV. kötet. Bp., 1893. [a 364. és a 365. lap között] "V. Magyar-cigány szógyüjtemény" (XLIII--XLVIII)

[cr] Rounds, Carol,

Hungarian, An Essential Grammar, Routledge, London & New York, 2001 [PDF}

"This is a concise, user-friendly guide to the most important structures of this fascinating language. All students of Hungarian, whether beginners or at intermediate and advanced levels, will welcome its clarity of presentation and jargon-free explanations. It is ideal for those studying independently or following a taught course. Appendices  include the formation of irregular verbs, complete noun declensions and irregular noun patterns. With numerous language examples bringing grammar to life, this truly essential reference work will prove invaluable to all students looking to master the patterns and irregularities of modern Hungarian.

[csd] Detre, Csaba Dr.,

Hun Lexicon (in Hungarian)

[cw] Wisdom, Charles,

Chorti Dictionary, 1950

From microfilm of handwritten notes deposited at the University of Chicago by Charles Wisdom, this dictionary was transcribed and transliterated by Brian Stross,

Department of Anthropology,University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712

{da} Abondolo, Daniel (ed.)

[da] The Uralic Languages.

London, New York, 1998 Routledge. (Reprinted as paperback in 2006).

[da1] PHONOSEMANTIC SUBSETS IN THE LEXICON: HUNGARIAN AVIAN NOMENCLATURE AND L’ARBITRAIRE DU SIGNE

Central Europe, Vol. 5, No. 1, May 2007

[db] Boutkan, D.,

The online Old Frisian etymological database (the evidence of R1). Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project (Leiden University).

Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 1 September 2000]

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[dep] Perrotin, Damien Erwan, (amateur linguist)

Etruscan Etymological Glossary

See his section on "How to become a Crackpot" intended to put you in your place, where he states that Etruscan is "...basically Greek".

I hope he means that the Etruscan alphabet is similar to that of the Phoenicians and/or the Greeks, but the Etruscan language is not Greek?

[df] Frawley, David Dr.,

The Myth of Aryan Invasion of India, Full Text

[dg] Grune, D.,

Language Summaries

Burushaski PS/PDF

[dk] King, Dennis, (dead link)

Word a Day in Irish

[dlp] Payne, Doris L.,

The Maasai (Maa) Language

Maasai Language Project

[dm] Margócsy, Dániel, (dead link)

Nép, Sokaság, Csod, Tömeg, Csodtömeg

Origin of Hungarian words semantically related to "crowd"

[dma] Abondolo, Daniel, Mario,

The Uralic Languages

Routledge, 1998

[dmlcs] DICTIONARY OF MEDIEVAL LATIN FROM CELTIC SOURCES
-----------------
CELTIC-LATIN WORD-LIST

[dss] Debrecen Summer School

Hungarolingua Grammatica {Hungarian Grammar} (dead link)

[dw] Winford, Donald,

An Introduction to Contact Linguistics

Published by Blackwell Publishing,
2003ISBN 0631212515, 9780631212515.
416 pages

[ecq] Quigley, Edward C.,

Awara Phonology

MA Thesis, University of North Dakota, 2003

[ehh] Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica,

THE TURKISH AGE IN HUNGARY (1526-1699)

[ehh1] Uhl, Gabriella,

The First Half of the Middle Hungarian Period

[ehh2] Kakuk, Zsuzsa,

Turkish Loan Words

KNIGHT KINGS - THE ANJOU AND SIGISMUND AGE IN HUNGARY (1301-1437)

[ehh3] Hámori, Antónia S.,

The Old Hungarian Period

[el] Etruscan Language,

On various attempts at decipherment of Etruscan inscriptions, the website author writes "The translations are quite creative, and read like crossword clues. One would have to wonder why any ancient civilisation would write such strange disjointed phrases on their grave stelae etc". Such a statement needs clarification.

Undoubtedly there are many nonsense translations of Etruscan inscriptions, but if Etruscan morphology has some flexional and agglutinative traits then it is quite possible that literal translations will seem 'strange and disjointed' to someone who does not think natively in at least one inflected/agglutinative language. For example,

From [wlg:6-9] Literal
ENGLISH
LATIN
'Inflected Language'
MAGYAR
'Agglutinative Language'
Nominative sing. The Poet Poet-a A költő
Dative sing. girl-to puell-ae leány-nak
 Adjective large magn-as nagy
Accusative Plur. ros-es ros-as rózs-ák-at
Verb, 3rd. person, sing. gives, is giving da-t ad

The sentence in Latin and Magyar is perfectly natural though it is often 'strange and disjointed' as a literal translation in English. In translating such languages there is often a need to juggle words and meanings to produce idiomatic English for example. In Latin and Magyar most of the words may be rearranged for emphasis without stuffing up the overall meaning of the sentence, but that is not possible in English. Just a thought.

This is a great site on Etruscan, but marred by the fact that the anonymous author indulges in such a classic example of bogus skepticism by also resorting to accusations of 'nationalism' and 'crank' scholarship against others offering alternatives to mainstream theories concerning the Etruscans.

If you can't counter those 'crackpot' claims with which you don't agree then you attack 'the person', their qualifications, abilities or their motivation. Fits the spirit of 'Science' to a tee, doesn't it?

[em] Encyclopedia Mythica

[emas] Maslova, Elena, 2003 Tundra Yukaghir, LINCOM, LWM 372

TundraYukaghir.pdf (dead link)

tundra_yukaghir.pdf courtesy of Harald Hammarström

[ep] Partridge, Eric,

Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.

[epsd] The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary

[etcsl] The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

[etcsl1] Sumerian Language (brief introduction)
[etcsl2] Cuneiform

Courtesy of the Oriental Institute, University of Oxford

[fh] Hámori, F., Sumerian & Ural-Altaic Rootword Dictionary
--------- Ural - Altaic & Dravidian Languages
---------
The Hungarian Language
---------
Untenability of The Finno-Ugrian Theory (dead link)
[fhc] --------- Chinese Similarities
[fh16] -------- Correspondence of 16 Feb. 2000
[fh315] The phonology and sound rules of Sumerian, 2005 (dead link)

[fjs] Steingass, Francis Joseph,

A Comprehensive Persian-English dictionary,

including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature. London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1892.

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[fm] Austronesian Languages:

A Comparison

[fv] Válóczy, F.,

Finnic, Ugric, Samoyedic, Proto Languages

[ga] Aulestia, Gorka,

Basque-English Dictionary, University of Nevada Press, 1989

[gc] Clauson, Gerard

An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish

Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1972

[gd] GoiHata's Dictionaries

[gdbj] Basque-Japanese Dictionary

This a a Japanese Basque dictionary to bring the Japanese culture and Basque Culture closer together. More than 20.000 entries and growing..., Both cultures have many points in common. There is a lot to learn from each other and a lot to benefit from it. Use it freely to learn Basque and Japanese.

[gdsj] Spanish-Japanese Dictionary

Provides a Spanish Japanese and Japanese Spanish dictionary. This dictionary contains more than 25.000 entries and growing..., and its main objective will be to assist the Spanish Japanese translators when doing direct as well as inverse Japanese Spanish translations.

[gg] Gordon, Glen, (amateur linguist)

(mostly dead links)

[gg0]gLeNny'Z Long-Range Linguistix
[gg1] IndoTyrrhenian Glossary (accessed 22 March 2001)
[gg2] Linguistics for the masses

(these work)

[gg3] Gordon's Etruscan Dictionary Poject

Gordon's goal in this project is "...to ascertain workable translations that fit the existing inscriptions without the "linguistic voodoo", ethnopolitical bias, overhyped mystery-mongering and other rhetoric plaguing this field".

Such a lofty goal won't be achieved with all that emotional baggage displayed in his blog below. We have such little information to start with to develop a faulty approximation of the Truth which cannot help but be coloured by current cultural noise. In the case of Etruscology how wide ranging is the entire corpus of known Etruscan inscriptions which will allow one to ascertain the Truth, whatever that is? Do we have any written histories or even one piece of Etruscan literary work not dealing with the dead which can help decide who is right and who is wrong?

[gg4] (Gordon's Blog) Voodoo Linguistics, in Etruscology

The sensationalist title so trendy in Etruscology (and Ugristics!) should be a tip-off that clear thinking is not required in Gordon's blog in which he dismisses the ideas of Alinei and Ballester with unscientific, vitriolic, personal attacks to highlight some alleged error because their theory is too 'jarring' to his currently accepted view of the universe. Gordon attacks Xaverio Ballester on p. 15 for his article (site1, site2) which refers to an allegedly non existent Etruscan word 'naceme' found only on one object called Vetulonia's Cup in a continuous script and nowhere else in the entire corpus of Etruscan texts. Gordon claims this just a case of Voodoo Linguistics.

The apparent absence of 'naceme' is an interesting point. However, its absence in existing 'texts' doesn't necessarily prove a thing because a lot of information is just unavailable on Etruscan culture and language. According to (source) there is no great literary tradition left to us to know the thoughts, feelings and way of life of the Etruscans.  While Etruscan inscriptions might be numerous they are also rather limited in content and scope! An extensive enough corpus of texts which covers all aspects of Etruscan culture, religion, history and social interactions which do not deal exclusively with the dead just does not exist for us to be able to know for sure one way or another concerning the status of 'naceme'. A great deal of primary information about the Etruscans has been lost and insurmountable difficulties stand in the way of reconstructing their civilisation and history.

But Gordon knows better.  Besides "...anyone with a bit of grey matter can see that..." what he says is true. If you can't, well then you are stupid. Still one gets the impression he has not read the original works of Ballester (in Spanish) nor Alinei (in Italian, Magyar) which he says are shunned by linguists. Even if Alinei is wrong, and he does admit that there are areas not explained by his theory, what does outright dismissal without any examination prove? Can one evaluate such a work simply by reading short English summaries? Can one evaluate such a work by simplistically concentrating on one or two words without even being aware of the archaeological and historical aspects of the rest of the theory?

Thomas Kuhn maintained that, contrary to popular conception, typical scientists are not objective and independent thinkers. Rather, they are conservative individuals who accept what they have been taught and apply their knowledge to solving the problems that their theories dictate. Most are, in essence, puzzle-solvers who aim to discover what they already know in advance - "The man who is striving to solve a problem defined by existing knowledge and technique is not just looking around. He knows what he wants to achieve, and he designs his instruments and directs his thoughts accordingly." During periods of normal science, the primary task of scientists is to bring the accepted theory and fact into closer agreement. As a consequence, scientists tend to ignore research findings that might threaten the existing paradigm and trigger the development of a new and competing paradigm. [source]

Of course, if one spends a lot of time on one's own project "...to ascertain workable translations that fit the existing inscriptions without the "linguistic voodoo", ethnopolitical bias, overhyped mystery-mongering and other rhetoric plaguing this field" then such an overreaction and the shunning of Alinei's and Ballester's theories by their professional colleagues without debate and examination is perhaps, after all, entirely consistent with the spirit and the methodology of Science in which Gordon places such religious faith. It isn't skepticism that is lacking in professional and amateur circles as claimed by Gordon but a little bit of objectivity! But then if you know it all, why bother? LOL

If Alinei's theory is 'wrong' then its allegedly testable hypotheses should be falsifiable to use Karl Popper's idea. Much more so than the unpronounceable proto-words invented in mainstream linguistic circles which can never be historically verified/falsified with actual spoken proto-languages of extremely remote times. Voodoo science, indeed.

[gk] Köbler, Gerhard,

[gk1] Altenglisches Wörterbuch
[gk2] Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch
[gk3] Altniederfränkisches Wörterbuch
[gk4] Altnordisches Wörterbuch
[gk5] Altsächsisches Wörterbuch

[glb] Bonfante, Larissa & Giuliano,

The Etruscan Language: An Introduction. Manchester and New York, 1983; trans. as Lingua e cultura degli Etruschi, rev. trans. Rome 1985

[glnp] Garrett, Jonathan; Lastowka, Greg; Naahielua, Kimberly; Pallipamu, Meena

Turkmen Dictionary Project © 1996, c/o Peace Corps Turkmenistan, P.O. Box 258, Krugozor, Central Post Office, Ashgabat 744000.

[gm97] Meiser, Gerhard.

Jazyk etruski -poza rodzinŕ indoeuropejskŕ (dead link)

(The Etruscan language -outside the Indo-European family) Postscriptum' Nr. 21, pp. 19-47, spring 1997 (online translation)

English translation here

[gn] Neufeld, Grant, Cree Lessons

[gp] Perrot, Gildas, (dead link)

Breton <-> English / Brezhoneg <-> Galleg

[gp98] Price, Glanville,

Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe

Published by Blackwell Publishing, 1998,
ISBN 0631220399, 9780631220398
499 pages

Also available @ Google Books

[gzb] Bodroghy, Gabor Z.,

[gzb0] Online articles on Liber Linteus

(A very detailed site on the only surviving Etruscan "book" written on linen which was cut up to wrap a female Egyptian mummy probably in 1 A.D., '...consisting of 230 lines of text and 1200 words that can be read more or less clearly, and 100 more words that can be reconstructed from the context with a high degree of certainty'. )

[gzb1] Historical Linguistics: Old Hungarian

[gzb2] The Hungarian Rovás (Hungarian Paleography)

Site about Old Hungarian runic writing that was perfectly suited to the Hungarian language but was banned by the Church and the Árpád dynasty in order to keep pagan elements under control.

[gzb3] Correlation Analysis of the Hungarian Rovás

[hcm] Melchert, H.Craig,

[hcm1] Cuneiform Luvian lexicon (Lexica Anatolica, Volume 2), Chapell Hill, N.C. 1993 (conversion into the STARLING format by A. Lubotsky, october-november 2000).[accessed June 2001]

[hcm2] Lycian lexicon (Lexica Anatolica, Volume 1, 2 edition), Chapell Hill, N.C. 1993 (conversion into the STARLING format by A. Lubotsky and S. Starostin, January-February 2001). [accessed June 2001]

Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project (Leiden University).
Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[hcm3] Hittite harp(p)- and Derivatives - PDF

[hgr] Raverty, H. G. (Henry George).

A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans: with remarks on the originality of the language, and its affinity to other oriental tongues. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867.

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[hh] Hammarström, Harald

PDF's of grammars (lots of them)

Harald had to take the site down (see explanation)

[hh96] Hámori, Fred., Halloran, John, A.,

Lexicon of Sumerian Logograms with Ural Altaic & Dravidian Comparisons, 1996

[hk] Hammel, E.A., Kohler, K.P.

Kinship-based Resource Sharing in the Agrarian Economy of Frontier Slavonia, 1698: Evidence from an Early Census

DRAFT 22 OCT 95,

[ho] Slocum, J., Kimball, S.E.,

Hittite Online

Linguistics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin

[ho:1] Hoffner, Harry A., Güterbock, Hans G., van den Hout, Theo P.J., editors

THE HITTITE DICTIONARY Volume P (pdf)

THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, 1997.

[id] Duridanov, Ivan,

The Language of the Thracians

[ied] The Indo-European Etymological Dictionary at

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[iits] IITS - Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies, University of Cologne
[iits1] Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon
[iits2] Capeller's Sanskrit-English Dictionary
[iits3] Online Tamil Lexikon (OTL)
[iits4] Lexicon of Iranian Languages (LIL)

[ijh] Josika-Herczeg, Imre, Dr.,

Hungary - After a Thousand Years (pdf)

This book is quite unique. It was published a long time ago, in 1934. Written
by a Hungarian immigrant, published in New York by a local Hungarian
language newspaper, it was probably sold to the paper’s subscribers, not to
bookstores and libraries. Consequently it has gone entirely unnoticed by those
with professional interest in the political history of Hungary. It is a pity,
because it contains a great deal of information about Hungary that are scarcely
touched in other texts. The treatment of the topic is remarkably untainted by
the vicious anti-Hungarian propaganda that appears in many similar books. It
is written in the friendly spirit that characterized American - Hungarian
relations before World War I. [Prof. Andrew L. Simon]

[il] Laka, Itziar.

A BRIEF GRAMMAR OF EUSKARA, THE BASQUE LANGUAGE,

Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, (University of the Basque Country)

[ils] Iranian Languages and Scripts

English-Persian Dictionary (Modern Persian) (dead link)

[jb] Breen, J., Dr., [j.breen AT csse.monash.edu.au]

WWWJDIC Japanese-English Dictionary Server

see Jim Breen's Japanese Page

[jbcd] Broschart, Jurgen., Dawuda, Carmen,

Beyond Nouns and Verbs: Typological Studies in Lexical Categorisation, PDF

[jd] Dienhart, John M. The Mayan Languages- A Comparative Vocabulary, electronic version, Odense University, 1997.

[1834]

GALINDO, JUAN, Informé de la comisión científica formada para el reconocimiento de las antiguadades de Copán. Photographic copy of manuscript. Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum Library, Harvard. 46 pp..

[1893]

CARRILLO Y ANCONA, CRESCENCIO , Pronunciación de las letras del alfabeto en lengua maya. Manuscript. Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum Library, Harvard. 18 pp.

P = Peto (from Manuel A. Valez, Sept. 19)
S = Sotuta (from whom?)
T = Tizimin (from Francisco Rejon Espinola, Aug. 25)
V = Valladolid (from L. Manzano, Aug. 23)

[1897]

SAPPER, CARL, Das nördliche Mittel-Amerika nebst einem Ausflug nach dem Hochland von Anahuac. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn. 436 pp.

[1907]

SAPPER, CARL, Choles und Chorties. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Congress of Americanists (1906), pp. 423-465.

[jf] Friedl, Jeffrey

Japanese-English Online Dictionary

Based on the dictionary and work of Dr. Jim Breen

[jh] Halloran, J. A.,

Sumerian Language Page

[jl] The Jurchen language and Script Website

[jla] Laakso, Johanna, Dr.,

[jla0] Frequently Asked Questions about Finno-Ugrian Languages

She states that "No serious scholar of the Finno-Ugrian languages has ever doubted the common origin of these languages", That is, if anyone does doubt such a blatantly, obvious fact then they cannot be a 'serious' scholar. Words do hurt and mislead, don't they?

According to Dr. Laakso, "What has been falsified is probably the antiquated idea of Finno-Ugrian cultural or even racial relationship." Sorry, I don't understand the statement. Either the idea has been falsified or it has not. The word 'probably' introduces an element of uncertainty into the statement.

She writes "... there are people possessed by more or less crazy ideas of relating their native language with some very prestigious or exotic language ...", which is clearly designed to put all those crackpot dilettantes and unorthodox professionals in their place who offer alternatives to Finnish mainstream Finno-Ugristics. I'm willing to bet that such a general claim is simply not true in every case. There must be a few much-maligned, unbigoted amateurs and professionals who are open-minded and very intelligent individuals who don't claim to have complete rights to absolute Truth.

Once again: If you can't counter those 'crackpot' claims with which you don't agree then you attack 'the person', their qualifications, abilities or their motivation. Fits the spirit of 'Science' to a tee, doesn't it?

She admits that "... it seems probable that genetic relationship beyond the language families known by now can never be proved." If that is so, then it might also follow that perhaps alternative unorthodox relationships cannot be disproved, especially with such unscientific statements?

[jla1] LINGUISTIC SHADOW-BOXING

Dr Laakso criticises Angela Marcantonio's book "The Uralic language family. Facts, myths and statistics". At least Dr. Laakso is refreshingly honest enough to declare that she did her best to shed her prejudices while reading AM's book. But she still couldn't help getting personal about AM's professional competence :-

"Above all, this book is a sad memento for all Uralists about the looming marginalisation of historical linguistics, Uralistics included. It seems that the principles of diachronic linguistics are known to all too few linguists today. Otherwise it remains a mystery why an obviously honest and industrious, academically trained linguist can misunderstand so many fundamental facts..."

Some might be concerned about this imagined 'looming marginalisation of H.L' but to use Laakso's own words, "AM's book could be (more importantly) regarded as a positive challenge to Uralistics, giving impulses for further discussion...." even though it is hard for her to find much worth in AM's book. As a result, Laakso actually asks honest questions if not with tongue-in-cheek whether it "Could it be that the tradition of Uralistic rhetorics has been too arrogant in trusting the acknowledged nature of linguistic relatedness as a fait accompli? Have Uralists fought for the right cause with wrong weapons? Should something be done to counter AM's claims that the counter-evidence has been systematically minimised and ignored?"

Yeah, critical (self)examination and questioning, not dogma, are supposed to form part of the basis of the much touted Scientific Method, I think.

[jla2] "Related words" in Finnish and Hungarian

"The following list is neither comprehensive nor unquestionable. Many words could perhaps be added, some etymologies are uncertain or different linguists have different opinions about them. We should also bear in mind that this is not a comprehensive list of "old Finno-Ugrian words". Some words like Hung. toll 'feather' have cognates in almost all other FU languages but, as it happens, not in Finnish; likewise, Finnish has obviously ancient words whose cognate just happens to be missing in Hungarian."

What an 'exact' science.

[jp] Pashka, Jos.

Virdainas - a dictionary of the Sűdovian language. (RECONSTRUCTED!!)

The Sűdovians were also known by the names -Yotvingians, Yatvingians, or Soudinoi (Ptolemy 2nd Century A.D.)

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/6623/
http://www.suduva.com/virdainas/main.htm

[jplg] Gwynn, J. P. L. (John Peter Lucius).

A Telugu-English dictionary. Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[jr] Redfern, James.

A Lexical Study of Raeto-Romance and Contiguous Italian Dialect Areas.

The Hague: Mouton, 1971.

[jrr] Ramos, Jesús Rodríguez, Iberian Epigraphy

[jrr1] A very Short Introduction to the Iberian Language

[js] Shipley, Joseph T.,

The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots,

The Johns Hopkins University Press; Baltimore, London; 1984

[jtm] Molesworth, J. T. (James Thomas)

A dictionary, Marathi and English

2d ed., rev. and enl. Bombay: Printed for government at the Bombay Education Society's press, 1857.

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[kaya] Kaya, Polat,

READING OF THE LEMNOS ISLAND INSCRIPTION

[ken] Kenkyusha's Japanese-English Dictionary,

Takenobu Yoshitaro (General Editor), American Edition, Harvard University Press, 1942

[kh] Horváth, Katalin,

The connection between the part and whole in forming sentences,

Department of General and Applied Linguistics, Loránd Eötvös University, Budapest

[kjd] Dillon, Kenneth J.,  Scientia Press

The Trojan Origin of Roman Civilization (TORC)

Intriguing speculation on the origins of the Romans and their language.

[kk] Kumar, Keerthi,

DRAVIDIAN AS THE COMMON SOURCE OF INDO-EUROPEAN

[kl] Khakas Language

Introduction to the Khakas Vocabulary

[km] Megerdoomian, Karine

Persian Morphology

[kn] Howell, Lawrence J., and Morimoto, Hikaru,

Kanji Networks: Etymologies of Chinese Characters as Used in Japan

The more than 3,700 etymologies in this site illuminate the phonosemantic origins of Chinese characters, and account for the principal meanings the characters bear in modern Japanese.

[lan] Language Families :

Introduction to the more important language families including Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Afro-Asiatic, and others List of the 20 most spoken languages in the world.

[lb] Bonfante, Larissa,

ETRUSCAN, Uni. of California/British Museum, 1990

[lc] Campbell, Lyle,

Historical Linguistics, an introduction, pg 250

from Uralic Grammatical Reconstructions by Fred Hamori

[lj] Johansson, Lars,

Discoveries on the Turkic Linguistic Map 2001 (pdf)

Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul

[lk] KRÁLIK, Ľ.,

Some Remarks on a New Dictionary of Hungarian Loanwords in Slovak.

Slovenská reč, 67, 2002, No. 2, pp. 81 – 91. (Bratislava).

The author gives a review of Hungarian Loanwords in the Slovak Language by L. Rocchi. (see entry under [lr] below) He also discusses (in Slovak) some general methodological principles of etymological research into loanwords and proposes alternative etymologies for some Slovak expressions included in the dictionary under review.

[ll] The Linguist List :

Language & Language Family Information

[lo] Országh, László,

English-Hungarian Dictionary,

Vols I-II, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1976

[lp] Palmaitis, Letas, Dr.

PRUSSIAN  RECONSTRUCTIONS

[lr] Rocchi, Luciano,

Hungarian Loanwords in the Slovak Language: A-K [Volume: 1,  192 pages]

Dipartimento di Scienze del Linguaggio dell'Interpretazione e della Traduzione, Trieste, Italy, 1999

The first volume of a two-volume, one-way dictionary of Hungarian loanwords in Slovak. Includes a discussion of the integration of Hungarian loanwords into Slovak. Entries include a Slovak head term, an English translation, and the Hungarian etymology. Also includes a Hungarian index for finding specific Hungarian items.

Vol. 1 available as  PDF file courtesy of [source]

Hungarian Loanwords in the Slovak Language: L-R [Volume: 2, 82 pages]

Dipartimento di Scienze del Linguaggio dell'Interpretazione e della Traduzione, Trieste, Italy, 2002

The second volume of a two-volume, one-way dictionary of Hungarian loanwords in Slovak. Includes an extended bibliography and list of authors cited. Entries include a Slovak head term, an English translation, and the Hungarian etymology. Also includes a Hungarian index for finding specific Hungarian items.

Vol. 2 available as  PDF file courtesy of [source]

Hungarian Loanwords in the Slovak Language S-Ž [Volume: 3, 118 pages, Supplement]

Trieste, EUT Edizioni Universitŕ di Trieste, 2010

This work is the third and last part of a thoroughgoing study of Hungarian loanwords in Slovak, of which the first two volumes have been published under the auspices of the Scuola Superiore di Lin-gue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (I (A-K), Trieste 1999) and the Dipartimento di Scienze del Linguaggio, dell'Interpetazione e della Traduzione (II (L-R), Trieste 2002). It is the first complete research work covering this subject. Previous studies have hitherto confined themselves to examining only a part of the lexicon or specific semantic fields, whereas L. Rocchi's study encompasses the entire lexical heritage of the Slovak language, including obsolete, regional and dialect terms. Of the Hungarian words from which the Slovak terms originate, etymological illustrations are provided and where these themselves are loans indications given as to their immediate and remote sources. And in cases where the Hungarian word in question has also been borrowed by other languages (such as Croat, Rumanian or Ukrainian) information is provided to that effect. Hungarian loanwords in the Slovak language may therefore be said to be a mine of information on the diffusion of Hungarian in central-eastern Europe and as such to stand as an invaluable work of reference for anybody interested in linguistic cross-fertilisation in the Danube basin.

Vol. 3 available as  PDF file courtesy of [source]

[lrp] Palmer, L. R.

The Latin Language.

London: Faber, 1954.

[lsj] Crane, Gregory R. (ed.)

The Perseus Project, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu,

[lsj] accessed July 2001
[lsj1] accessed November 2001.

[lt] Trask, L. Dr., Basque Page

[lt1] Comparative method
[lt2] Random similarities: clarification
[lt3] Comitative in Basque in Typology of comitative: a summary by Timur Maisak
(accessed 27 July 2001)

[lt4] The History of Basque, London ; New York : Routledge, 1997 [ISBN/ISSN    0415131162 (hardbound)]

1. Introduction -- 2. A thumbnail sketch of the language -- 3. Phonology -- 4. Grammar -- 5. Lexicon -- 6. Connections with other languages.

[lt5] Etymology Dictionary of Basque,

Avaliable on the web in PDF form from the Uni. Sussex 2008

[cam] Macartney, C.A.,

[cam1] Hungary - A Short History
[cam2] Hungary and Her Successors: The Treaty of Trianon and Its Consequences, 1919-1937, Oxford University Press

[mab] Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman,

A course in Baluchi.

Montreal: Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University, 1969.

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[maldp] Mesoamerican Languages Documentation Project (MALDP)

[Marácz] Marácz , László, Dr.,

THE UNTENABILITY OF THE FINNO-UGRIAN THEORY FROM A LINGUISTIC POINT OF VIEW

..... Site 1 | Site 2

[mc] Mc Callister, Rick and Mc Callister-Castillo, Silvia

Site 1: Etruscan Glossary (No longer available)
Site 2: Etruscan Glossary

[mc1] Mc Callister, Rick: (No longer available)

On-line dictionary of postulated non-IE substrate vocabulary in the Germanic languages {http://www.muw.edu/~rmccalli/subsGerIntro.html}

[mc2] Carrasquer Vidal, Miguel and Mc Callister, Rick, (No longer available)

Illyich-Svytich Dictionary of Nostratic Roots

11. (descript.) *biC'a "small" {http://www.muw.edu/~rmccalli/IS11.html}
25. *büK.a "to bend, bent" {http://www.muw.edu/~rmccalli/IS25.html}

[mcb] MacBain, Alexander,

An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language

Gairm Publications, 1982

[mcf] MacFarlane, Malcolm,

(Scottish-) Gaelic-English dictionary

Eneas MacKay, Bookseller 43 Murray Place, Stirling. 1912.

Out of copyright. Keyed in and verified at Sabhal Mór Ostaig, the Gaelic college on the Island of Skye, by Caoimhín P. Ó Donnaíle and Ruth Melton. HTML version by John T. McCranie, San Francisco State University.

[md] Drvodelic, Milan,

Croato-Serbian English Dictionary,

Skolska Knjiga, Zagreb, 3rd edt., 1970

[mds] de Smit, Merlijn,

Uralic Linguistics Vs. Voodoo Science

Again, the emotionally charged and sensationalist title so trendy in Ugristics (and Etruscology) should be a tip-off that clear thinking is not really required.

de Smit provides a 'critique' of alternate theories, where personal attacks are still necessary to defend the integrity of mainstream Uralic linguistics.

Classic example: If you can't counter those 'crackpot' claims with which you don't agree then you attack 'the person', their qualifications, abilities or their motivation. Fits the spirit of 'Science' to a tee, doesn't it?

[mhn] Nodine, Mark H.,

A Welsh Course, (with lexicon)

[mk] Kapović, Mate,

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTO-SLAVIC QUANTITY
(FROM PROTO-SLAVIC TO MODERN SLAVIC LANGUAGES)

Filozofski fakultet
Sveučilišta u Zagrebu
Ivana Lučića 3, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

http://mudrac.ffzg.hr/~mkapovic

[mld] Dames, Mansel Longworth

A sketch of the northern Balochi language, containing a grammar, vocabulary and specimens of the language. Calcutta: Asiatic Society, 1881

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

The "Errata" included with A sketch of the northern Balochi language have been applied to the data when this text was converted into a database. The data for this dictionary was most recently updated in May 2002. This dictionary is funded in part by the U.S. Department of Education.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

[mn] Noonan, Michael, (Papers) at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

[mn0] The Nar-Phu language (PDF)
[mn1] The Chantyal Language (PDF)

[mnl] MAGYAR NÉPRAJZI LEXIKON

Some ancient but interesting medical terms (in Hungarian only)

[mns] Marcantonio, Angela (Roma),  Nummennaho, Pirjo (Napoli), Salvagni, Michela (Roma)

THE ”UGRIC-TURKIC BATTLE”: A CRITICAL REVIEW (PDF)

"J. Budenz is generally believed to have been the scientist who established
the existence and uniqueness of the Finno-Ugric node and family beyond doubt.
Much of the Uralic literature is based on this belief. However, there appears
to be little discussion in the literature actually referring to the original works
of J. Budenz. The purpose of this paper is to review this original work critically."

[mo] Owstrowski, Manfred,

History of the Basque Language Site 1, Site 2
Basque language history: some facts and suggestions for private study

[mor] Taiuru, K.N., Gough, M.C.,

English/Moriori Wordlist (dead link)

[mp91] Pallottino, Massimo. A History of Earliest Italy. U Michigan P, 1991.
[mp75] ------The Etruscans. London, 1955, 1975.
[mp68] ------Etruscologia. Milano: Hoepli, 1968.

[msp] Morris Student Plus Hiztegia, BASQUE-ENGLISH Dictionary contains

67,000 headwards, 120,000 expressions and idioms courtesy of the
Euskadi,Basque Country, Basque Government, Autonomous Community
site at

(http://www.euskadi.net/home/menu800_i.htm)

[msz] Szakács, Margit,

The Hungarian Language

Gives an account of the development of the language.

[mu] Uusküla, Mari,

         Basic colour terms in Finno-Ugric and Slavonic languages: Myths and facts

DISSERTATIONES LINGUISTICAE UNIVERSITATIS TARTUENSIS

The dissertation pursues three main objectives: (1) to establish the basic colour terms in two Finno-Ugric languages, Hungarian and Finnish, and one Slavonic language, Czech; (2) to examine the intriguing case of the two reds, which are allegedly basic in Hungarian according to Berlin and Kay; and (3) to compare the denotata of focal colours of the basic colour terms identified across the three studied languages and relate these to foci in English, Russian and Estonian studied earlier by others.

[mv] Vadeysha, Masha,

The Russian Bathhouse: The Old Russian Pert’ and the Christian Bania in Traditional Culture

European University at St Petersburg

[mw] Witzel, Dr., Michael, Homepage

[mw0] Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies
[mw1] Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)

PDF, DVI, PS (accessed 28 February 2002)

[mw2] Early Loan Words in Western Central Asia: Substrates, Migrations and Trade

in PDF format (Preprint accessed 8 September 2002)

[mw3] Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan

ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF VEDIC . 5 (1999), issue 1 (September)

[mz] Zárate, Martha, Basque Linguistics & Literature

Histories of the language
Phonology, morphology and dialectology
Grammar, vocabulary and language theory
Dictionaries, bibliographies and encyclopedias
Literature

[nb] Burenhult, Niclas,

Deep linguistic prehistory with particular reference to Andamanese

Lund University, Dept. of Linguistics 1, Working Papers 45 (1996), 5-24

[ng] Ngata English/Maori Dictionary

[ob] Ojibwe textbook for Beginners

[ocs] Krause, Todd B., and Slocum, Jonathan

Old Church Slavonic Online

Linguistics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin

[oi] ACHAEMENID ROYAL INSCRIPTIONS, Oriental Institute, Uni. of Chicago

[oi1] ---------------------- Glossary Of The Old Persian Texts
[oi2] ---------------------- Glossary Of The Elamite Texts
[oi3] ---------------------- Glossary Of The Akkadian Texts

[oi4] The Afro-Asiatic / Cushitic Index by Gene Gragg (dead link)

WARNING: "It cannot be emphasized too strongly that each entry is simply a LEXICAL INDEX to a cognate set, and NOT the full, published cognate set itself, nor a substitute for the exact etymological claim . This latter must be consulted in every case to determine the claim being made by the author, and the basis of the interpretation of the evidence." [Gragg]

[osr] Old Spanish Readings.

Edited, with Introduction, Notes and Vocabulary by J.D.M. Ford, Harvard University. Copyright 1906

For any questions or comments please email Alison Gaffney at alison798@hotmail.com.

[pa] Agostini, Paolo,

[pa1] Etruscan Glossary

[pa2] Mendele: Yiddish literature and language, Contents of Vol. 6.003, May 20, 1996 [link]

[pbg] Golden, B., Peter, Codex Cumanicus

Site 1: Carrie Books University of Kansas
Site 2:
CAM Books CENTRAL ASIAN MONUMENTS, (c) Copyright H. B. Paksoy

[pc] Parpola, A., Carpelan, C.,

The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History

             By Edwin Bryant, Laurie L. Patton, Contributor Edwin Bryant, Laurie L. Patton, 
Published by Routledge, 2005
ISBN 0700714634, 9780700714636
522 pages

[pc1] Colley, Ebrima, Mandinka

Peace Corps The Gambia, PO Box 582, Banjul, The Gambia, 1995

[pc1] Dictionary PDF
[pc1a] Grammar PDF

[pc2] Dem, Sierra, Wollof

Peace Corps The Gambia, PO Box 582, Banjul, The Gambia, 1995

[pc2] Dictionary PDF
[pc2a] Grammar PDF

[pd] Dobrev, Peter,

Inscriptions and Alphabet of the Proto-Bulgarians

[pjh] Hillery, P.J.,

THE GEORGIAN LANGUAGE, An outline grammatical description

[pk] Kelly Phil,

MANX - ENGLISH DICTIONARY,

Version 1.2 based on D. C. Fargher’s English - Manx Dictionary of 1979 - (ISBN 0 904980 23 5).

[pkm] Kekai Manansala, Paul [pkm]
-------------
An Austro-Dravidian Languages Theory, 1996
-------------
Austric Influence in India
-------------
Sumerian and Austric Language

[pl] Potawatomi Language,

[pl1] Grammar

[pn] Ninnes, Peter,

[pn1] English-Roviana Word List
[pn2] Grammar of the Roviana Language

[pok] Pokorny, J., Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch

Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project (Leiden University). Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 13 October 2002]

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

Although Pokorny's masterpiece is an indispensible tool used by Indo-Europeanists for all kinds of research, it is completely outdated.

[pr] Ryan, Patrick C.,

[ryan] URARTIAN GLOSSARY
[ryan1] Correspondence 14 November 2000

[q] Quechua/Quichua Language resources
[q1] -------------- Tuschman, Avi, Quichua (Ecuador) Database
[q2] -------------- Runasimi - Deutsch - English - Espańol - Français (ANSI format text)
[q3] -------------- Ancey, Jean-Luc, Quechua - French

[rb] The Altaics - A description of the people and the various languages

[rd] Derksen, R. The online database of the Slavic inherited lexicon. Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project (Leiden University). Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 1 September 2000].

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[rh] Hellie, Richard (The University of Chicago) ,

Russian clothing and its international context: 1600-1725

In Drevnerusskaia kul'tura vmirovom kontekste: arkheologiia I mezhdistsiplinarnye issledovaniia. Materialy konferentsii Moskva, 19-21 noiabria 1997 g. Ed. by A. V. Chernetsov. Moscow: RGGU and IARAN, 1999.Pp. 284-302.

[rlt] Turner, R. L. (Ralph Lilley), Sir.

A comparative dictionary of Indo-Aryan languages.

London: Oxford University Press, 1962-1966. Includes three supplements, published 1969-1985.

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, Univ. Chicago

[rma] Allott, R. M.,

SOME APPARENT UNIFORMITIES BETWEEN LANGUAGES IN COLOUR-NAMING,

from LANGUAGE AND SPEECH Vol. 17, Part 4, Oct.-Dec. 1974, pp. 377-402

[rwc] Rgvedic word concordance

Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 1 September 2000].

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[sa] Ager, Simon,

Omniglot - alphabets, syllabaries, languages online

[saj] Sajnovics, Joannis,

Demonstration. Idioma Ungarorum et Lapponum Idem Esse. Tyrnavia, 1770.

Language versions in Latin,English, Hungarian courtesy of Gabor Bodroghy

[sast] Satzinger, Helmut, Stefanoviç, Danijela

(AUSTRO-)GERMAN WORDS IN SERBIAN

[sc] Collings, Simon,

Indo-European Languages

{http://wkweb4.cableinet.co.uk/simon.collings/Language/Indo-European.htm}

[sc0] Crist, Sean, Indo-European Language Resources
[sc1] ----------- Bright's Old English Glossary
[sc2] ----------- Wright's Gothic Glossary
[sc3] ----------- Glossary to An Old High German Primer

[sgt] Thomason, Sarah G.,

Can rules be borrowed?

University of Michigan, 2001

[si] Skeptical Investigations, John Caton: Webmaster,

[si1] Boerner, Rochus, Seven Warning Signs of Bogus Skepticism

[sj] James, Simon, Ancient Celts Page
-----------
The conventional history of the Celts
----------- An alternative history of 'Celticism'

[sk] Kalyanaraman, Dr. S., Indian Lexicon {Introduction , Index}

The Lexicon organised by Semantic Clusters
The Lexicon organised by English meaning
The Lexicon organised in alphabetical sequence {12 MByte download}

[slc] Sardinian Language and Culture, University of Cologne

Comparison between linguistic change in Sardinian and other Romance languages

[sm] Shibatani , Masayoshi,

The Languages of Japan, Cambridge University Press, 1990

[sp] Parpola, Simo,

Sons of God: The Ideology of Assyrian Kingship

from Archaeology Odyssey November/December 1999

On the web: - try this Site

[ss] Starostin, Sergei

Altaic etymology | Dravidian etymology | North Caucasian Etymology
Downloads of Altaic,North Caucasian,Chinese and Sino-Tibetan, Chukchee-Kamchatkan, Dictionaries (Zalizniak, Mueller), Dravidian, Ozhegov's dictionary,and software to manipulate these files!

[sva] Axenov, Serge V.

Brahui Dictionary

Brahui Grammar

[te] Evans, Trevor,

'A Semitic Etymology for the Greek and Latin Words for Purple'

Electronic Antiquity Vol. 3 Issue 1 - June 1995 edited by Peter Toohey and Ian Worthington

[tm] Montler, Timothy,

Klallam: Word list, Story, Phrases
Saanich:
Word list, Morphology and phonology
Alabama:
Dictionary
Coeur d'Alene:
Dictionary

[tm1] Bilkent University, Turkey

Online Turkish Morphological Analyzer

[tm2] Languages and Scripts of India

[tob] A dictionary of Tocharian B

Available at:

(old Address) http://iiasnt.leidenuniv.nl/ied/
[accessed 20 January 2001]

(new address) http://www.indo-european.nl/

[tr] Roberts, Taylor,

Pashto dictionary

from the glossary of Herbert Penzl's A grammar of Pashto: A descriptive study of the dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan (Washington, DC: American Council of Learned Societies, 1955), pp. 154-165

[ua97] Hakulinen, Lauri,

The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language

The Uralic and Altaic Series: 1960-1993 V.1-150
By Denis Sinor, John R. Krueger, Lauri Hakulinen, Gustav Bayerle
Translated by John R. Krueger, Compiled by Gustav Bayerle
Contributor Denis Sinor
Published by Routledge, 1997
ISBN 0700703802, 9780700703807
383 pages

Also available @ Google Books

[ua] English Măori word translator - University of Otago, NZ

[ucla] Structural Sketch of Farsi (Modern Persian)

Jasmin Harvey via mailto:jharvey@ucla.edu

[ud] The ULWA Language Home Page:

Old Site (broken link)
New Site

[va] Abaev, V.,

A grammatical sketch of Ossetic, Indiana University Center in Anthropology, Folklore and Linguistics, Bloomington, Indiana, 1964.

* Full Russian version here (scanned images in .GIF)

* 1952 and 1959 composite version here (PDF)

[ve] Elšík, Viktor,

Loanwords in Selice Romani, an Indo-Aryan language of Slovakia (PDF)

Research funded by Roma Culture Initiative of the Open Society Institute, Budapest 2001-2002.

[vf] Fornai, Peter, Vonyó, Attila,

English Hungarian, Hungarian English Dictionary

[vit] The Languages of Ancient Italy: VÍTELIÚ / The Alphabets of Ancient Italy

[vo] Orel, Vladimir,

A Handbook of Germanic Etymology

Brill, Leyden, Boston, 2003

[vs[ Stetsyuk, Valentin,

[vs1] Introduction to the Study of Prehistoric Ethnogenic Processes in Eastern Europe (DOC)

[vs2] Turkic-Slavic Language Connections (DOC)

[wl] Lehmann, W. P.,

A Reader in Nineteenth Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics,

First Published by Indiana University Press in 1967

[wlc] Rechnik: Bulgarian Dictionary

[wlg] Wheelock, Frederic M., Wheelock's Latin Grammar, Harper Collins, 1992

[ws] Schipper, William,

Modern English to Old English Vocabulary, Memorial U.

[ws1] Schipper, William, Lionarons, Joyce, Irvine Martin and Everhart Deborah

Old English Literature

[ww] Whitaker, William,

Latin-English dictionary program for the PC - "WORDS"

[wz] Webster, Donald H., Zibell, Wilfried,

Ińupiat Eskimo Dictionary,

illustrated by Thelma A. Webster, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc., Fairbanks, Alaska, 1970.

[yd] Athabaskan languages of Northern British Columbia

Yinka Déné Language Institute

[ydc] yourDictionary.com

An Index of On-line Grammars

[y84] Sawyer, Jesse O., Schlichter, Alice,

Yuki Vocabulary

Univ, of Calif. Press, 1984

[z98] Zoltán András Dr., lecturer at the Eötvös Loránd University (academic paper)

SZLÁV-MAGYAR NYELVI KAPCSOLATOK (in Hungarian)
(Slav-Hungarian Linguistic Connections/Links)

Given at "Mária Dorottya Evangélikus Szabadegyetem" 1998.

[zb] Bodolai, Zoltán Dr.,

THE TIMELESS NATION,

Chapter 1 THE MILLENIAL QUEST, Hungaria Publishing Co., Sydney, 1978

LOANWORDS in Hungarian

This frustrating section is an attempt to list references to Hungarian and borrowings.

[*] Kosztolányi, Dezső,

Read Kosztolányi's Open letter to Antoine Meillet (1886-1936), one of the most influential of French linguists and Indo-Europeanists. Surprisingly, it gives you a gutful of the bigotry and the ignorance directed at the Magyar and their language, perfectly exemplified by this great French scientist.

Kosztolányi mentions that (in early part of the 20th. Century) "Our academy's newest dictionary, which is far from being complete, indicates a word-pool of 122,067. Out of these, 330 are of old Turkish, 756 of Slavic, and 1393 of German origin, but these latter ones are gradually disappearing from the everyday language, and are only used in a few Transdanubian dialects. As a result, the number of our German loan-words is not even half of the registered one. Our Latin loan-words are insignificant."

[*] Hakulinen, Lauri,

The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language
1997 - Foreign Language Study

The Uralic and Altaic Series: 1960-1993 V.1-150

By Denis Sinor, John R. Krueger, Lauri Hakulinen, Gustav Bayerle
Translated by John R. Krueger
Compiled by Gustav Bayerle
Contributor Denis Sinor
Published by Routledge, 1997
ISBN 0700703802, 9780700703807
383 pages

Also available @ Google Books

According to Hakulinen, loanwords in Hungarian are held to constitute about 45% of bases in the language. Although the lexical percentage of native words in Hungarian is 55%, their use accounts for 88.4% of all words used (the percentage of loanwords used being just 11.6%)

[*] Kenesei, István (editor),

A nyelv és a nyelvek ("Language and languages"),
Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, ISBN 963-05-7959-6, p. 134

This academic article lists percentages of loans in Hungarian as follows

Finno-Ugric 21%, Turkic 9.5%, Slavic 20%, German 11%,
Latin and Greek 6%, Romance 2.5%, 1% other of known origin,and 30% of uncertain origin.

Ignoring the fact that these figures add up to 101%, let's group {Finno-Ugric 21% + 30% of unknown origin} to get 51% of 'native' Hungarian. That leaves 50% for foreign loanwords which appears to tally well with Halukinen above. If you treat the 30% of uncertain origin as the only bit that is 'native' Hungarian which linguists haven't been able to tie to every other language as loans, then these figures show a whopping 70% of foreign loanwords in Hungarian.

Either way, the popularity of these figures sees them copied mindlessly and uncritically on Wikipedia, Answers.com, www.obnova.sk and on more than 50 websites as of 30th. August 2008. Unsurprisingly these figures are sometimes used by the ignorant to 'prove' how primitive Hungarian must be if it needs all those loanwords. However, the source of these figures does warn the reader that such a misleading impression is due entirely to the statistical viewpoint.

If loanwords 'prove' the lowly status of a language then Hungarian wouldn't be number one in such a list.  Look at how much was borrowed by English where approximately 65% or more of the lexicon is of foreign (non-Germanic) origin. Swedish also has more than 65% foreign (mostly Low German) vocabulary. While Albanian apparently draws 90% of its vocabulary from foreign sources such as Greek, Latin and Slavic. [dw: p.59]

Statistics can be extremely misleading.

[*] Zoltán András Dr., Slavic specialist and lecturer at the Eötvös Loránd University (academic paper)

SZLÁV-MAGYAR NYELVI KAPCSOLATOK (Slav-Hungarian Linguistic Connections/Links)

Given at "Mária Dorottya Evangélikus Szabadegyetem" 1998.

[*] Szakács, Margit,

The Hungarian Language

Gives a brief introduction to loans in the Pre/Early/Old Hungarian period.

[*] Kakuk, Zsuzsa,

Turkish Loan Words

Shows how Ottoman-Turkish loanwords ended up in Hungarian transmitted by Slavic, Rumanian and Western intermediaries.

[*] Price, Glanville,

Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe

Published by Blackwell Publishing,
1998ISBN 0631220399, 9780631220398
499 pages
Also available @ Google Books

According to Price p.231, the earliest identifiable loans in Hungarian are from IranianCaucasian loans were acquired during migration period. Evidence of 300 words borrowed from Common-Turkic or Chuvash-type Turkic languages during the migration period. 11-13th. Century AD Kipchak-type Turkic loans due to Pecheneg and Cuman immigration into Hungary. Small number of Greek loans came into Hungarian from contacts with Byzantium before Settlement in the Carpathian Basin right up to the 12th. Century AD. German loans resulting mainly from immigrants to Hungary 12-13th. Century AD onwards which intensified under Austrian Hapsburg Germanisation policy from the 17th. Century AD. on. In the 16-17th. Century AD Ottoman Turkish loans most of which are now obsolete with about 30 words remaining. Some of these may have also come into Hungarian from southern Slav languages. The number of Slavic loans in Hungarian is around 600 and these came into the language over different periods from Old Russian, Southern and Western Slav dialects.

2000 words borrowed from Latin - religious, legal and scientific terminology, animal and plant names, names of months. Dynastic and cultural contacts resulted in loans from French during the 12-13th. centuries. Later loans came from French via German in the 18-19th. centuries. Loans from Italian came from early medieval political contacts. Rumanian influence is probably more evident in Transylvania than in Hungary proper.

[*] Helimski, Eugene,

Finnisch-ugrische sprachen zwischen dem Germanischen und dem slavischen Sprachraum

Vorträge des Symposiums aus Anlass des 25-jährigen Bestehens der Finnougristik an der Rijksuniversiteit Groningen 13.-15. November 1991
By László Honti, Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen
Contributor László Honti
Published by Rodopi, 1992
ISBN 9051833873, 9789051833874
196 pages

P.51 (c) we have 

A big share of the loanwords in Old Hungarian (10th.-12th. centuries) "... is comprised of such words that occur relatively rare(ly) in Slavic (plant names, terms of agriculture and rural household etc.) and are therefore especially susceptible to accentual changes and create almost unsurmountable ... difficulties for the accentual reconstruction."

Just don't understand. Why borrow all those words which occur rarely in Slavic??

[*] Róna-Tas, András, Dr.,

Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History

Published by Central European University Press, 1999, ISBN 9639116483, 9789639116481,566 pages

Details what we 'know' officially and has lots of discussion about loans in Hungarian.

[*] Frojimovics Kinga, Komoróczy Géza, Pusztai Viktoria, Strbik Andrea

Jewish Budapest: Monuments, Rites, History

Hebrew or Yiddish Loanwords in Hungarian p. 476 

Published by Central European University Press, 1999
ISBN 9639116378, 9789639116375
597 pages

Also available @ Google Books

The authors show that the listed loanwords were, and are still used in everyday Hungarian first of all in the metropolitan centre, in Budapest.

[*] Erb, Mária,

Acculturation Processes and Interethnic Relations among Germans in Hungary prior to 1945 in the Light of Hungarian Loans.

HTML,  PDF

This article is an edited version of the lecture the author prepared for the conference entitled Változások a Kárpát-medence tér- és identitásszerkezeteiben [Changes in the Spatial and Identity Structures of the Carpathian Basin] organised by the Minority Studies Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on May 30-31, 2002.

Four hundred loan words taken from the Hungarian language and integrated into the German dialects of Hungary were collected from various scientific publications and others of documentary character published before 1945, that is, prior to the end of the examined period.

[*] Szabó, Attila, Babes-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Kolozsvár-Napoca

 HUNGARIAN LOANWORDS OF ROMANIAN ORIGIN (PDF)

"This (very short) article is based on a longer paper read on February 5, 1982 in Budapest at the plenary
meeting of the Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság."

Hungarian Studies Ifl (1985),  Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

[*] Richards,  Ronald Owen, University of California, Los Angeles

The Identification of Pannonian Slavic Loanwords in the Hungarian Lexicon

Abstract

Attempts to identify which of the many Slavic loanwords found today in Hungarian actually belong to the earliest stratum of Slavic loanwords. Also included are his own strategies for identifying those Slavic loanwords which, based on phonological evidence, could not have entered the Hungarian lexicon during this earliest period of Slavic-Hungarian interaction.

{Must check it out, if I could get my hands on a copy.}

[*] Greenberg, Marc L., Sifting the Evidence for the Reconstruction of Pannonian Slavic

HTML, PDF (login required)

Provides a review of Ronald O. Richards' The Pannonian Slavic Dialect of the Common Slavic ProtoLanguage, a revision of his UCLA Ph.D. dissertation.

"Although the corpus of borrowed Slavic material in Hungarian is not small-altogether some 1500 lexical items-the time and locus of borrowing are difficult if not, in some cases, impossible to pin down because (a) some lexical items may have entered during a period of prior Slavic-Hungarian contact, and (b) some degree of Slavic-Hungarian contact has remained in effect-virtually to the present day-even after the geographical continuity of the Slavic speech territory in the north and south was severed. To complicate matters further, the Slavic speech territory during the period under scrutiny was undergoing an exceptionally dynamic phase of expansion and internal differentiation. Additionally, Sprachbund phenomena coupled with the lengthy time parameter along which Slavic material has been deposited in Hungarian have contributed to multifarious transformations of the material, making it difficult to determine whether variation found in the borrowed Slavic material is to be attributed to Slavic dialect differentiation or to internal Hungarian developments. In principle the Sprachbund phenomena could be sorted out better if the Hungarians had left some close' (surviving) relatives behind during their migration into Europe. As it stands, the closest linguistic relatives, Khanty and Mansi, who make up the Ob-Ugric group, separated from Proto-Hungarian some three millennia ago, making this avenue of investigation virtually meaningless. The ambiguities and internal contradictions in the Slavic borrowed material in Hungarian have led previous investigators to conflicting assessments."

[*] Pacsai, Imre,
Magyar–szlovák kulturális és nyelvi kapcsolat jegyei a szlovák népmesékben
The traces of Hungarian–Slovakian cultural and linguistic contacts in Slovakian folk tales.

Magyar Nyelvőr,
Volume 123, Number 3,
ISSN 1585-4515,
July–September 1999

Abstract :-

Slovakian folk tales exhibit a number of features reminiscent of Hungarian folk tales. In the present comparative study, the author seeks to answer the question of whether this is due to accidental similarity, shared use of international motifs, or else a specific instance of Hungarian–Slovakian cultural and linguistic contacts. Along with features suggesting Hungarian influence, including Proppean morphological similarities and shared elements of plots, linguistic correspondences were also found. Names of characters of a corresponding status appear as Hungarianisms or as loan translations of Hungarian names in Slovakian tales. Slovakian folk tales exhibiting similarities and parallels with Hungarian ones also contain a large number of loanwords taken form Hungarian. The Slovakian storyteller does not only preserve the plot of the tale and names of its characters, but also borrows and uses linguistic features of Hungarian tales, their set phrases and idiomatic introductory elements.

In addition to morphological and linguistic similarities, ancient mythological traces of a Ural-Altaic origin appearing in Hungarian, as well as Slovakian, folk tales also suggest that Hungarian folklore is the model, the source of borrowing, and not the other way round. Slovakian folk tales showing correspondences with Hungarian ones were created and recorded in collections of tales exactly in the areas where Hungarian–Slovakian contacts are the most intensive, a fact that further corroborates the role of direct cultural and linguistic contacts in the development of such similarities.

[*] Rocchi, Luciano,

Hungarian Loanwords in the Slovak Language: A-K [Volume: 1,  192 pages]

Dipartimento di Scienze del Linguaggio dell'Interpretazione e della Traduzione, Trieste, Italy, 1999

The first volume of a two-volume, one-way dictionary of Hungarian loanwords in Slovak. Includes a discussion of the integration of Hungarian loanwords into Slovak. Entries include a Slovak head term, an English translation, and the Hungarian etymology. Also includes a Hungarian index for finding specific Hungarian items.

Hungarian Loanwords in the Slovak Language: L-R [Volume: 2, 82 pages]

Dipartimento di Scienze del Linguaggio dell'Interpretazione e della Traduzione, Trieste, Italy, 2002

The second volume of a two-volume, one-way dictionary of Hungarian loanwords in Slovak. Includes an extended bibliography and list of authors cited. Entries include a Slovak head term, an English translation, and the Hungarian etymology. Also includes a Hungarian index for finding specific Hungarian items.

Hungarian Loanwords in the Slovak Language S-Ž [Volume: 3, 118 pages, Supplement]

Trieste, EUT Edizioni Universitŕ di Trieste, 2010

This work is the third and last part of a thoroughgoing study of Hungarian loanwords in Slovak, of which the first two volumes have been published under the auspices of the Scuola Superiore di Lin-gue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (I (A-K), Trieste 1999) and the Dipartimento di Scienze del Linguaggio, dell'Interpetazione e della Traduzione (II (L-R), Trieste 2002). It is the first complete research work covering this subject. Previous studies have hitherto confined themselves to examining only a part of the lexicon or specific semantic fields, whereas L. Rocchi's study encompasses the entire lexical heritage of the Slovak language, including obsolete, regional and dialect terms. Of the Hungarian words from which the Slovak terms originate, etymological illustrations are provided and where these themselves are loans indications given as to their immediate and remote sources. And in cases where the Hungarian word in question has also been borrowed by other languages (such as Croat, Rumanian or Ukrainian) information is provided to that effect. Hungarian loanwords in the Slovak language may therefore be said to be a mine of information on the diffusion of Hungarian in central-eastern Europe and as such to stand as an invaluable work of reference for anybody interested in linguistic cross-fertilisation in the Danube basin.

Vol. 3 available as  PDF file courtesy of [source]

[*] Wikipedia: Slovak Language

Concerning Hungarian loanwords in the Slovak language, this site unsurprisingly claims that "There is a very low number of Hungarian loanwords in Slovak."

Lists two words only, both of which are ultimately from Turkic.

I suppose the authors haven't come across the previous three volumes of Hungarian words in the Slovak language (see L. Rocchi above)!

[*] Slavic Words in the Hungarian Language

* This non-academic site makes the claim that

"During last more than 1000 years (after the arrival of Magyars to Europe) the Hungarian language borrowed thousands of common words from Slovak and other Slavic languages (Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, etc). Many of them are quite essential for the Hungarian language.", but  only manages to list 30 such words.

Almost half of the words listed on this site are possibly not even of Slavic origin. For example,  Indo-Iranian (abroncs, csütörtök), Germanic (asztal, munka), Asia Minor (cseresznye), Finno-Ugric (utca < út?), Latin (ecet, pásztor), possible wanderword (kabát, kulcs), debatable (könyv), Turkic/Cuman (szalma). Of course, Slavic might still have been the intermediary transmitter of these words from other languages.

* In the same vein, another non-academic site makes similar statements :-

"...according to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Hungarian language borrowed some 1200 words from the Slovak language (and 1000 from other Slavic languages), especially in the 10th century, when the nomadic Hungarians settled in present-day Hungary and had to take over basic vocabulary necessary for a civilized life".

(Was there all that much 'civilisation' in the 10th. Century?)

Again this 'fact' is uncritically repeated on Answers.comNationmaster.com, TripAtlas.com almost verbatim. The first two sites mention the source of these figures while the third couldn't be bothered :-

Kniezsa, István: A magyar nyelv szláv jövevényszavai. Akadémiai Kiadó, 1955

Wonder if this Slavicised form is the same Kenesei István listed above? However, haven't been able to check this work out written during the hey-day of Communism and just before the 1956 Hungarian revolution. Also need to find a copy of the 1974 version of this reference, wonder what it says?

According to a more recent source [gp98: p.231] the number of Slavic loans, today, is around 600 and these came into Hungarian over different periods from Old Russian, Southern and Western Slav dialects. But according to [Greenberg] above it is around 1500 though  difficult to pin down as to the time of borrowing. While 2200 were all borrowed in the 10th. Century! according to [Kniezsa] as alleged by these websites!

Confused?

It seems it is more important to exaggerate how much was borrowed by Hungarian than to value that language as a precious repository of a great linguistic treasure of Pannonian Slavic from such remote times!

Other links of interest

Linguistic Maps :-

Sites about "Chance Resemblances between Languages" :-

Dictionaries

Albanian | Avesta | Basque-Euskara | Brahui | Belarusan | Bengali | Bulgarian | Cheyenne | Chinese | Chinese Character Dictionary | English: Early Modern | Estonian | Etruscan | Finnish | Freedict.com | Gaelic | Greek | Greek - Perseus Project | Hindi | Indian Lexicon | Ingush | Japanese | Latin | Latvian | Magyar | Multi-Language Translator | Pahlavi | Polish | Slovak | Sogdian | Sűdovian | Tamil | Turkish | Ulwa | Urdu | Vietnamese | Votic | Welsh

Last updated 28 October 2011