Grammatical Comparison

List is approximately in English alphabetical order not Hungarian

-an, -en, -n creates Adverbs of Manner from adjectives; etc /Hungarian


Hungarian suffix -an, -en, -n

(a) Creates Adverbs of Manner from adjectives; (b) Creates Verbs meaning of a "sudden" action that only lasts a short time from certain verbs. (c) Indicates the number of people doing something or present when the suffix is added to numerals


-an /Persian ?

sirr-an secretly, mysteriously, clandestinely; sari`-an swiftly, with expedition; sam`-an hearingly, i.e. willingly; sahw-an inadvertently, erroneously; sharat-an wickedly, mischievously; shirakat-an jointly; tanz-an in joke; jeeringly, ironically; adat-an habitually, customarily; fard-an singly, severally, one by one; mihz-an merely, purely, solely, wholly; and so on /Persian [fjs]

There are many more examples in Persian most of which, if not all, are unbelievably listed as loans from Semitic/Arabic by [fjs] !!

-andó, -endő this suffix denotes "action that is to be completed" /Hungarian


-andó, -endő this suffix denotes "action that is to be completed" /Hungarian

The suffixes -andó and -endő form the Participle of Future Action, that is, such forms represent the Hungarian Future Participle which can also be used as a noun, and may be declined just as in Classical Latin.

jövendő future; állandó constant, lasting, standing; hajlandó willing, ready, inclined; leendő (anya) = (mother) to be; múlandó fleeting, ephemeral; teendő work (to be done) /Hungarian

The original meaning of the Future Participle has been lost in these Hungarian words.


indi 1. now 2. next, following; indiki next; indikile next time /Turkmen [glnp]


ondore (G,L,LN,U) result, consequence; future; succession
ondoren (C) consequence, result, conclusion; conj./prep. after (B,G)
ondorio (L,LN,Z,U) result, outcome; effect, outcome



ayinda_, ainda hereafter, next time, in future (Kannad.a,Telugu)(Kannad.a lex.) [sk]


âinda future /Brahui



See (similar?) daonnan, daondan continually, always /Gaelic
[whose etymology seems uncertain.] [mcb]


Passive Future Participle = present stem + -ndus,-nda,-ndum in Classical Latin

It is interesting just how much the Hungarian suffixes -andó and -endő resemble the Passive Latin forms. The grammar in this context also functions in a similar manner in both languages. Must be a coincidence.

ainda still, yet /Portuguese


onda then, after that, thereupon, at that time; next /Serbo-Croatian


aainda next /Pashto [tr]


è-de future suffix , e(n) future suffix

az "that" (demonstrative pronoun) /Hungarian
ez "this" (dem. pronoun) /Hungarian


Hungarian az and related ott "that, there"; onnan "from that" officially derive from FU. [Chong]

a-, ata (Komi, Udmurt); u- (Mari); o (Mordvin)

Hungarian ez and related itt "here", ide "hither", innen "from here", így "so", ilyen "such as this" officially derive from FU [Chong]

[? *e this (Proto FU); et that (conjunction), egä, iga every (Estonian); e- in että that (conjunction) (Finnish); âttì that (conjunction) (Lappish)] / [? it now, in just now; this (Khanty); e-: sy this, that, eta this, edz'i so (Komi); e-: emb& if, when, ese that one, esë there (inessive), estë from there (elative), es't'a so, es't'amo such, ete this; i-: is't'a so, is't'amo such (Mordvin)]

[? eke, eko this, this here, eo' hither (En'ec'); iid@ that one there (Kamas)]

kase (dem. prn) this here, that there /Vaddja [fv]


Cognate Set <Cohen (1947) , #347> [oi4]


d- this /Aramaic; z- this /Hebrew; d_u (demonst.) /Arabic


s (s', z) man


i_d ayd ad (demonst.) /Berber


[? incˆä so (Old Turkish); ene this (Buryat); edüge now (Clasical Mongol) // ädu here (Ewenk)] [Chong]

∫u this, that /Turkmen [glnp]


es this; eg, is that /Georgian [pjh]


ita, itu, ta this [lb]

(0) Indo-European

*s- (demonstrative pronoun) /PIE [cb2]


es, isah, os this (Armenian - Dorosmai) [Chong]


es- this /Lydian [cb2]
asa-, asi- that /Hittite [cb2]

(1) Indo-European


e this, these; he, she, it, they. /Baluchi [mab]

abba {az "that" + ba "into"} into that, to that; there /Hungarian
ebbe {ez "this" + be "into"} in/into this /Hungarian


With abba, ebbe the z of the demonstrative pronoun assimilates with the b- of the suffix.


abe/ba_n (obl. aben.-/ba_n.-) there; aben.i/ba_n.i of that place, belonging to that place; abekan man belonging there (Kond.a)(DEDR 1). [sk]


b "in, from, among" /Phœnician [cgj]


IE Root

epi, opi near, at, against [ahd]


epi on, over, at [ahd]


ob, ob- before, to, against /Latin [ahd]


ob on /Old Church Slavonic [ahd]


abhí to, unto; against /Sanskrit
ápi unto, on, to, thereto /Sanskrit

abból {az "that" + ból "from"} from/of that, therefrom /Hungarian
{ez "this" + ből "from"}from/of this, out of this /Hungarian
-ból, -böl from, out of /Hungarian


With abból, ebből the z of the demonstrative pronoun assimilates with the b- of the suffix.


ebol out, forth /Coptic Egyptian [cgj]
bal, bol outside; (of time) out of, beyond /Coptic Egyptian [cgj]

addig {az "that" + -ig} until then; as far as that; till, until; as far as that; up to that time /Hungarian
eddig {ez "this" + -ig} till now; so far; hitherto; up to the present; as far as this; up to this point /Hungarian


Hungarian suffix -ig expresses

(a) adverb of place -> it denotes "termination of something"
(b) time -> it expresses (i) a point or (ii) duration of time.

Hungarian adverb addig is formed from 'demonstrative pronoun' a(z) that + -ig
Hungarian adverb eddig is formed from 'demonstrative pronoun' e(z) this + -ig


adi as far as, until, (in adi muh#h#i) until /Akkadian [oi3]
`d until, even /Phœnician [cgj]
’ade up to, until /Ugaritic


tanaka, tanka, anaka upto that measure; till, until, as far as (Kannad.a); danake, da_ka_, da_ke (Telugu); tane (Malayalam); tan-ai quantity, number, measure (Tamil.)(Kannad.a lex.) cf. tan-ai a particle denoting quantity and time-limit (Ta.)(DEDR 3147) [sk]



dde- A, de- B (up to, until) /Lycian [cb]


ădhūc of time, hitherto, till now; till then; still, even now /Latin
hūc hither, to this place /Latin

c.f. Latin hūc with the Hungarian suffix -ig

ata prep. (Arab. hatta) until; ata que until./Old Spanish [osr]

até till /Portuguese


tak up to, so long as (Nepa_li, Bengali, Or.iya_); tak till, as much as (Hindi_); tuvak, ta_k, tuva_k so many, so much (Old Sinhalese); ta_k, tek till, as far as (Sinhalese) [sk]

arra {az "that" + -ra "to,towards"}there, that way (indicating direction) /Hungarian
erre {ez "this" + -re "to,towards"}this way (indicating direction) /Hungarian
iránt, irány-á-ba(n) towards /Hungarian
on; onto; upon him;her;it; rá- prefix "on, onto"; -ra, -re suffix "to, towards" /Hungarian


arra, erre /Hungarian

the z of the demonstrative pronoun assimilates with the r- of the suffix.

iránt, irány-á-ba(n) towards /Hungarian

One official source thinks Hungarian iránt derives from FU.

*ar3, *ur3 (Proto Ugric) [Chong]

Another source thinks the origin derives from a fossilized root ir- [Chong]

rea 'to, towards, onto' /Old Hungarian from 1055 AD [bl]

The oldest and longest piece of Magyar comes from 1055 AD, from the Royal Chart of the Tihany Abbey which reads

feheruuaru | rea | meneh | hodu | utu | rea

whitecastle | to | go, travel | military | road, way | to, unto, on

It is curiously still understandable to a modern Hungarian and today would be written as

Fehérvárra menô hadútra meaning ' To the military way going to White Castle'

'to, towards, onto' /Modern Hungarian
rea /Székely Hungarian (Transylvania)

One official source thinks Hungarian derives from FU.

? *rang3 (Proto Ugric)

r^ngx@ outside, without (Nether Konda Man's'i); r^ngokÅ aside, laterally, on one side, sideways; etc. (Pelymka Man's'i); rang outside, without; rangk‹à· aside, laterally, on one side, sideways; etc. (Tavda Man's'i) [Chong]

Another source says derives from an earlier *ro¥- which could be related either to the (Man's'i) words listed here or to those related to Hungarian rokon "kin", etc. [Chong]

Yukaghir [emas]

A small group of transitive verbs are built from intransitive stems by an applicative-like derivation, i.e., the derived transitive verb signifies essentially the same action as the basic intransitive, but this action is construed as directed towards a specific endpoint, for example :-

ørn'e-ri- `shout to somebody'
køt'egej-re- `rush towards something'


ra(-g/h) prep., dative suffix - for - denotes the animate being towards whom or in favor of whom an action is done. [jh]

ri demonstrative affix, that, those; regarding that (where the reference is to something outside the view of the speaker - over yonder). [jh]


r (prep.) from, to, at, concerning /Egyptian [cgj]
erat "to"; ero for, to, as regards to /Coptic Egyptian [cgj]


orun to {directed towards} [sm]


-ri, -ru directional suffix /Turkish


ara (B,G); hara (L,U) there (indicating direction, towards)
-ra suffix "to"; -rantz suffix "towards"


-eri, -ri gerundive suffix, postposition "for, for the sake of" [az96, mp68: 400]
locative, instrumentive suffix [mp68: 396]

-tra "toward" [az96]



ri to, against /Gaelic, re /Irish, ri, fri /Old Irish [mcb]

Classical Armenian [cao]

arr preposition; arr to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to


-tar "locatival" particle /Cuneiform Luvian Lexicon [hcm1]


raa- ('toward the speaker') /Pashto [tr]


Nar-Phu [mn0]

-re dative, locative

The Nar-Phu language is a member of the Tamangic group [along with Chantyal, Gurung, Manangba, Tamang, and Thakali]. There are a number of phonological and lexical differences between the dialects of Nar and Phu.

Nar-Phu is overwhelmingly suffixing and agglutinative. The only prefix is negative a- : a-câ-w ‘don’t eat it!’.

Chantyal [mn1]




-ªŋ [with a few common nouns, deictics, case clitics]
-chª [with the noun mħun 'night]
-ra [in a few special expressions]

Chantyal is overwhelmingly suffixing and agglutinative. There are only two sorts of native prefixes: the negative prefixes a- and tha- on verbs and adjectives, and the deictic prefixes yi- ‘this’, ħª- ‘that’, and wu- ‘yonder’. A small number of prefixes may be found with Nepali borrowings, but these are not productive in Chantyal.

ide, itt(en) here; in this place /Hungarian
oda there; ott(an) there, in that place /Hungarian


Hungarian az and related ott "that, there"; onnan "from that" officially derive from FU. [Chong]

a-, ata (Komi, Udmurt); u- (Mari); o (Mordvin)

Hungarian ez and related itt "here", ide "hither", innen "from here", így "so", ilyen "such as this" officially derive from FU [Chong]

[? *e this (Proto FU); et that (conjunction), egä, iga every (Estonian); e- in että that (conjunction) (Finnish); âttì that (conjunction) (Lappish)] / [? it now, in just now; this (Khanty); e-: sy this, that, eta this, edz'i so (Komi); e-: emb& if, when, ese that one, esë there (inessive), estë from there (elative), es't'a so, es't'amo such, ete this; i-: is't'a so, is't'amo such (Mordvin)]

[? eke, eko this, this here, eo' hither (En'ec'); iid@ that one there (Kamas)]

Hurrian-Urartian [ryan]

edia there

Ainu [sm]

otta in, at {postposition}

Burushaski [dg]

to - there; it - over there
tóla - thither; íta - to over there
tólum - from there; ítum - from over there

Dravidian [sk]

a_da that place, there (Telugu); atan there; therefrom (Naikri); atala yonder (Kuwi); a- that over there (Kui); atala yonder (Kuwi); a- that most remote; asan, hasan there, thither; ayya_, hayya_ there, in that place (Kur.ux) (DEDR 1)



Gaelic ud yon, yonder, Irish úd, Early Irish út; for sud (sút), q.v. For loss of s, cf. the article [mcb]


[-tta] "locatival" particle /Cuneiform Luvian lexicon [hcm1]

Functionally = Hittite -kan. = Lycian -te and Palaic -tta. [hcm1]



idha here, now /Avestan

adda (adv.) there /Baluchi [mab]
oda (adv.) over there /Baluchi [mab]
yda (adv.) here /Baluchi [mab]
e-dem this way, hither /Baluchi [mab]


adás (pron.) yon, yonder, that, that there /Sanskrit
idám (adv.) now; here /Sanskrit


Chorti [cw]

ta '(locative and instrumental particle)'


âduh (interj.) here! [ud]
iduh (interj.) there! [ud]

így in this way; like this /Hungarian {/gy/ like palatised /d'/}
úgy so, like that /Hungarian


Hungarian így is seen as being related to Hungarian ez "this", itt "here", ide "hither", innen "from here", ilyen "such as this" and officially deriving from FU [Chong]

[? *e this (Proto FU); et that (conjunction), egä, iga every (Estonian); e- in että that (conjunction) (Finnish); âttì that (conjunction) (Lappish)] / [? it now, in just now; this (Khanty); e-: sy this, that, eta this, edz'i so (Komi); e-: emb& if, when, ese that one, esë there (inessive), estë from there (elative), es't'a so, es't'amo such, ete this; i-: is't'a so, is't'amo such (Mordvin)]

[? eke, eko this, this here, eo' hither (En'ec'); iid@ that one there (Kamas)]

One expert source sees Hungarian úgy as derived from a FU root. [Chong]
Another expert source sees úgy as related to Hungarian az "that" (see above)

{/gy/ like palatised /d'/}



îdi thus, in such a way /Khakas [kl]

(idä RI:1506 Sagay, edäy RI:848, edii RI:854 Sagay, Koybal, Kacha); îdi dee, îdök tee so, as it is; îdi tee çaxsï it is good as it is; ediibä, pidiibä, qaydiiba? RI:854 like this, like that or otherwise?; edäy keräk, çaqsï RI:849 that's right, good!. [kl]


uttu thus, in this manner /Manchu [as]


at.t.e_ in that manner; at.u, at.ula, at.ulu, at.t.ulu, thus (Telugu); dahun, daun, duhun in this manner (Bra_hui_)(DEDR 1) [sk]



íta (adv. used with adjs. and advs.) so, thus /Latin


íti in this way, thus, so /Sanskrit
itthā' (Vedic only) and, itthám (adv.) in this way; so /Sanskrit

benn(e) {bent} inside, within /Hungarian


byn p /Aramaic [cal]

1 passim between, among
2 Palestinian in
3 Palestinian whether...or

bynt p /Aramaic [cal]

1 Syr between

LS2 68 s.v. byny

LS2 v baynAt > byn

beyn among, between (Old Testament Strong No: 0997) /Aramaic


Penātes gods of the Roman household, gods of the interior < penes (root pen-) inside, in the interior of [ep: 480]

Interesting, though we would need leading Latin /p/ to become leading /b/ in Hungarian instead of /f/.

-cska, -cske litlle, small {diminutive suffix} /Hungarian


-ska small, little {diminutive suffix}
-xka small, little {diminutive suffix}

-ka, -ke little {diminutive suffix} /Hungarian


-ko little


*k.A> a suffix(diminutive or singulative) /North Caucasian [ss]

*-Vk. /Nakh [ss]

*-k.V a diminutive suffix /Andian [ss]

-k.o /Avar [ss]

*-k:(a) a diminutive suffix /Lezghian [ss]

-g / -k /Lezghi; -g /Tabasaran; -g /Rutul; -ng /Kryz; -ng /Budukh [ss]

*k.@ a morpheme denoting singularity /Abkhaz-Adyghe [ss]

-k.(@) /Abkhaz; -k.(@) /Abaza; -k./(@) /Ubykh [ss]


see similar German -chen little.small


-cha little,small,few {diminutive suffix} [q2]

-d possessive suffix (2nd. person singular) meaning "thy, your" /Hungarian


In Hungarian conversation this is used between close friends, family and so on. It is insulting to be this familiar with one's elders or strangers. (This occurs in several unrelated languages.)

Words ending in a Vowel :-

Words ending in a short vowel -a, -e are lengthened into -á-, -é- before the above suffix. However, long ó changes to short a while long ő changes to short e.

Words ending in a Consonant :-

Add the following suffixes subject to vowel harmony -od, -ad -ed, -öd

For example, ház-ad "Thy, your house" /Hungarian



at /Persian (Farsi) [fjs]

The affix pronoun of the second person singular to a word ending in mute he;

as khana-at, Thy house

de but, yet, however /Hungarian


da and, but /Erzya; but /Vaddja [fv]

Hungarian de is of unknown origin. [Chong]



çe but /Khakas [kl]



thô, , av. and cj. then, therefore, but, whilst; thôde = thô + de weakened form of thâr. /OHG; thoh, doh, av. and cj. yet, also, however, although. /Old High German


te and, also, besides, then /Serbo-Croatian


but, on the other hand /Sanskrit

possession suffix 'of' /Hungarian
-i plural possessive suffix /Hungarian


-n genitive singular; -in, -en, -den, -ten, or -tten genitive plural /Finnish
-n genitive suffix /Karelian

possession suffix 'of' /Hungarian
-i plural possessive suffix /Hungarian
-né suffix meaning 'wife of' /Hungarian (????)

Note that the Hungarian suffix is not a genitival ending, as the ordinary genitive construct does not exist in Hungarian. It is defined by the technical term of the "anaphora possessiva" suffix (where 'anaphora' means 'a carrying back').


-na genitive suffix [jh]



-in genitive suffix 'of' /Turkish

-nin after vowels (subject to vowel harmony, of course!)


Manchu [as]

i genitive particle
ni genitive case marker (after -ng)
-ni (Sibe) instrumental/genitive case marker

Jurchen [jl]

-i genitive case (attached to a noun ending in a vowel)
-ni genitive case (front verb vowel stem)

An extinct language, related to Manchu. It was spoken by the Nuzhen people [source]

Basque [lt3]

-en genitive suffix 'of'

The case-suffix <-en> in the modern Basque appears as <-e> in personal pronouns and in a few other seemingly fossilized forms; this <-e> appears to be an old genitive suffix.

Dravidian/Brahui [sva]

The genitive singular is formed by adding the termination -nâ to the singular stem of the substantive: lumma - lummanâ (mother).

The genitive plural is formed by adding the termination to the plural stem of the substantive, which is obtained by changing the plural suffix -k into -t: lumma - lummaghâk - lummaghâtâ.

Etruscan [lb]

-na suffix of possession or reference - creates an adjective for example,

aisna, eisna 'pertaining to god', 'divine'
śuthina 'of or pertaining to the tomb' < śuthi 'tomb'


Celtic/Gaulish (?)

-i genitive suffix


-i genitive suffix /Latin
-is genitive suffix /Latin

Slavic [sgt]

-a genitive singular /Russian
-u the so-called `second genitive' suffix /Russian

The two suffixes are functionally distinguished: the `second genitive' is a partitive, and the original genitive is used for other typically genitive functions (possessive, etc.). So, for instance, čaška čaj-u `cup of tea' (lit. `cup tea-PARTITIVE') is contrasted with cena čaj-a `price of tea' (lit. `price tea-GEN').


-(y)e is used in the possessive construction (ezafe) /Persian [ucla, km]

For example, ketab-(y)e "book of"

This morpheme is usually an unwritten vowel, but it could also have an orthographic realization in certain phonological environments. The role of the ezafe is to mark nominal determination and it indicates nothing as to the nature of the semantic relation between the linked elements. In most cases, this relation can be translated as a genitive (or possessive) structure. [km]


Nar-Phu [mn]

-(y)e, -i genitive
-nê independent genitive

The Nar-Phu language is a member of the Tamangic group [along with Chantyal, Gurung, Manangba, Tamang, and Thakali]. There are a number of phonological and lexical differences between the dialects of Nar and Phu.

Nar-Phu is overwhelmingly suffixing and agglutinative. The only prefix is negative a- : a-câ-w ‘don’t eat it!’.

Andamanese/South [nb]

-a genitive suffix /Onge

The Andamanese language family is spoken by the indigenous population on the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. Today only three tribes remain - the Onge, the Jarawa and the Sentinelese together numbering only a few hundred individuals.

Trans-New Guinea [ecq]

-na 1s.genitive after dorsals; -ŋa in all other environments /Awara

Awara is a Papuan language of the Trans-New Guinea phylum, Finisterre-Huon Stock, Wantoat Family

Group marker

-ék suffix /Hungarian


Hungarian suffix -ék when

1) attached to names of persons and professions denotes somebody's family and corresponds with the English suffix -s;

2) can be added to other words (not only persons) to denote a group


-ok suffix used with articles and nouns to express being part of a group


-ek suffix is added to the singular or plural of the word to form the group plural (also called ‘double plural’) [dg]

Plural marker

-k suffix to denote plurality /Hungarian


guolek (plur.) fish /Lapp

"The 2Psg suffix -k of the Lapp conjugation belongs here, too, thus the derivation of -k from the common Finnic form -t is absurd". [Künnap]

halak (plur.) fish /Hungarian

The plural marker -k is the exception rather than the rule in the Uralic family. It apparently only occurs in Hungarian and Lapp. [see Künnap]

(I) Plural of Nouns in Hungarian

(a) Elision

(i) in a few bisyllabic nouns the second vowel is dropped in the plural for example, torony 'tower' -> tornyok 'towers'

(ii) in words ending in the suffix -alom, -elem the second vowel (of the suffix) is dropped in the plural.

(b) Shortening

A few words with a long vowel in the final syllable shorten it in the plural case, e.g. egér 'mouse' -> egerek 'mice'

(II) Adjectives in Hungarian

(a) Front Vowel Adjectives

The linking vowel before the plural suffix -k is always -e-

kék 'blue' -> kékek 'blues'

(b) Back Vowel Adjectives

The linking vowel before the plural suffix -k is always -a- with a few exceptions.

piros 'red' -> pirosak 'reds'

Some exceptions include nagyok, boldogok etc.


-ki plural suffix /Kharia [mw3]

Iberian (?)

The "primary" suffix -k-, seems to have been a pluralizing suffix. [jrr1]


-ak suffix expresses the plural of the definite article

Dravidian [sva]

In Brahui, the plural can be formed by adding suffixes -k, -âk and -âsk to the singular form.


-cva suffix formed a so-called 'collective adjective' [lb]


Classical Armenian [cao]

-k' plural suffix

duk' -- pronoun; nominative plural of <du> thou -- Ye; nok'a -- pronoun; nominative plural of <na> he, she, it -- they; ordik' -- noun; nominative plural of <ordi> son -- the children; vardzk' -- noun; nominative plural of <vardz> reward -- rewards

Indo-Iranian/Iranian [fjs]

-ha the plural termination, formerly mostly of things inanimate, as sang "a stone," sang-ha "stones," while the plural of animated beings was generally (not exclusively) formed by -an, as adami "man," pl. adamiyan "men, mankind." In modern Persian, however, the ending -ha has almost entirely superseded -an both for inanimated and animated beings. /Persian



Dakelh (Carrier) [yd]

-ke suffix is the plural marker for a smaller number of nouns; (this is the usual way of marking the plural of kinship terms)

-ne suffix is the most common plural marker


Cree [gn]

-(w)ak suffix expresses the plural

e.g. sisip duck; sisipak. ducks
atim dog; atimwak dogs

Ojibwe [ob]

the plural suffix for animate nouns always ends with -g
the plural suffix for inanimate nouns always ends with -n

Potawatomi [pl1]

the plural suffix of animate nouns always end in -k
the plural suffix for inanimate nouns always ends with -n


két, kettő two (a pair); ketten two, the two of us; together /Hungarian


*-kè(-) meaning "dual" in Proto Uralic [lc]

later becomes plural for Hungarian, két two (things)) but also in most Uralic languages for two.

*kakte- (Proto Uralic) [Chong]

kydy two /Mator; kavto two /Erzya [fv]
kaksi (Finnish); kät, katn (Khanty); kyk (Komi, Udmurt) [Chong]


kide (C) member,colleague, fellow,associate
-kide (C) suffix signifying companionship
kidego (C) companion; kidetu (C) (vi) to be similar, be alike, resemble; to pair (up)


*ke/t`o (~k`-, g-, -o-,-t-) similar /Altaic [ss]

*ka>\th- to be similar, resemble /Korean [ss]

kat(h)- /Modern Korean; ka>\th-, ka>/t- /Middle Korean

*k@/t@/ resemblance, similarly /Japanese [ss]

koto, RJ -go/to/ku /Old Japanese; -gotoku /Tokyo [ss]


go∫a two, a pair /Turkmen [glnp]

katmar two together (Kyrgyz - -mar is a suffix); katmär double (Osman) / qatîn repeatedly (Old Turkic) / xat double (Sakha) [Chong]


katak companion (-k is a suffix); katlin in tandem (-lin is a suffix) (Ewen) [Chong]

Yukaghir [emas]

ki- 'two'


*q.Hwa": two /North Caucasian [ss]

*k.i- two /Andian [ss]

k.i-go /Avar; ĉ.e-gu /Andi; k.e-da /Akhvakh; eĉ.i-da /Chamalal; k./e-ja /Tindi; k.e-da /Karata; k.e-da /Botlikh; k./e-ra /Bagvalal; k./e-da /Godoberi [ss]

*q.w|y-nV A two /Tsezian [ss]

q.Iano /Tsezi; q.ono /Ginukh; q.Iw|ene /Khvarshi; q.Iune /Inkhokvari; q.ona /Bezhita; q.anu /Gunzib [ss]

k.i=a two /Lak [ss]

*k.w|i two /Dargwa [ss]

k.e-l /Akusha; ĉ.w|a-l /Chiragh [ss]

*q.Iw|a" two /Lezghian [ss]

q.w|e-d /Lezghi; q.Iu /Tabasaran; q.Iu-d /Agul; q.Iw|ad /Rutul; q.Io-lla" /Tsakhur; q.w|ad /Kryz; q.a-b /Budukh; q.Iw|e /Archi; p:aI /Udi [ss]

k.u two /Khinalug [ss]

*tqI:/w|A two /Abkhaz-Adyghe [ss]

?|w|-ba/ Abkhaz; ?|w|-ba Abaza; t.w|@ Adyghe; t.w|@ Circassian; t.q.w|a Ubykh [ss]



-que suffix represents the so-called enclitic conjunction "and" /Latin
repeated as -que....-que means 'both....and" /Latin

Committing heresy by including this suffix here for comparison!

Chukchee-Kamchatkan (?)

*quli another (другой) /Proto Chukchee-Kamchatkan [ss: PN287]

*quli , *quttą another, the second (другой, второй) /Proto Chukchee-Koryak [ss: PN723]

qul(i), quttą- /Chukchee; qul(i), quccą- /Koryak; qulle, quli- /Palan; qul(i), quttą- /Alutor [ss]

*qula /Proto Itelmen [ss: PN292]

qula, Poss. qula(n) another (другой) /Sedank dialect; kalo-tumx (< kola-) vicinus /West Itelmen [ss]

Niger-Congo (?)

xaaj (v.) to divide, separate; xaaji (v.) to divide; xaajo (n.) part,portion /Wollof [pc2]

el- prefix meaning "away, off" /Hungarian


Official source says this is related to Hungarian elő 'front'

*eð away, exit /Proto Ugric [Chong]
eeln far /Man's'i [Chong]


ul remote, distant (in time); ancient, enduring [jh]


`l from /Phœnician [cgj]



al= to take, to receive, to get, to acquire; to buy; to deduct (arithmetic) /Khakas [kl]


én I; enyém my, mine /Hungarian
ön- you, self /Hungarian


Hungarian én is 'possibly' of FU origin. [Chong]

*men I /Uralic

Hungarian ön is a very respectful form of address.
Officially, it ultimately derives from õ "he, she" [Chong]

Niger-Congo (?)

n (spn) I /Mandinka [pc1]



anāku I /Akkadian [oi3]
зnk I; зnhn we /Phœnician [cgj]


ink I /Old Egyptian [cgj]
ang, anok I /Coptic Egyptian [cgj]

Cognate Set <Dolgopol'skij (1973) , p. 133 #1> [oi4]


Bedawiye, Beja

ani I (Bedawiye, Beja)


an I /Awngi; an /Bilin; an /Qwara; an /Kemant; an /Xamir; an /Xamat

Cushitic, East

ani I /Alaba; a'ni /Burji; anu /Saho; anu /Afar; an ani- ani-ga /Somali; ani /Rendille; ani ana /Bayso; ani /Oromo; ane, ani /Sidamo; ani /Kambata; ani /Hadiyya

Cushitic, South

ana, an I /Alagwa; an(a) /Burunge; ani /Gorowa; an(i) anin~ /Iraqw


?'an-ii I /Proto Semitic


an I, we [sm]
en I [sm]


ni I; ene my; enegana to me


*ny> I (1st pers. pronoun) /North Caucasian [ss]

na I (1st /Lak [ss]

*nu I 1 we 2 /Dargwa [ss]

nu 1, nu-ŝa 2 /Akusha; nus:a 2 /Chiragh [ss]


enu I /Telugu; än /Kannad.a; yan, nan /Tamil; ñan /Malayam [fh]


-unan self /Breton [gp]


ana I, me, my Var: ina /Alabama [tm]


*n|a:- I, we /Sino-Tibetan [ss]

Chinese "I, we, my, our"
wo 3 Modern (Beijing) < n|a^/ Middle Chinese < n|ha:j? Old Chinese

n|a I, we, n|an we (C), n|ed I, we, (d)n|os I, we, self. /Tibetan; n|a I, LB *n|a. Burmese; n|ai1 I. Kachin; n|ei self, KC *n|ei. Lushei; ka> I Lepcha [ss]

*?o\n| I /Kiranti [ss]

un| Kaling; an| Dumi [ss]

ő he, she; ők they /Hungarian


hen (s)he /Estonian, Latvian, Vaadja [Chong]
hän (s)he /Finnish, Karelian, Ol, Vepsä [Chong]


ene he, she, en lord [fh16]


i, in "him, her, it" [oi2]


ani he, she {from an-i} [sm]
oka(i) they [sm]


an, o he, she, it /Turkish

o (s)he /Azeri, Turkish; u (s)he /Uzbek [Chong]


an "he, she"; in "it"



è he, it /Gaelic, é /Irish [mcb]
i she /Gaelic; í, /Irish; í, , /Old Irish; hi /Welsh, Breton [mcb]


a- he /Luwian; a-, e- /Hittite [cb]


en /Old Armenian - Dorosmai [Chong]


o (Z. ava, C. awa) he, she, it /Persian [fjs]

a that, those; he, she, it, they /Baluchi [mab]

Niger-Congo (?)

a (spn) he, it, she, him, her /Mandinka [pc1]

fel, föl up; above; fel-felé upwards /Hungarian


Official source says that fel, föl derive from föl "skimmings" which is of F-U origin. [Chong]

*p8"l3 (Proto Ugric) [Chong]


falatu, fala sky

The Etruscan 'falatu' is a reconstructed word from ancient sources

-gat, -get frequentive formative suffix which denotes that the action is continued for an extended period of time with or without interruption. /Hungarian


Also c.f. Hungarian suffixes -kod, -ked, -köd; -koz, -kez, -köz which form the so-called reflexive verbs most often from active verbs /Hungarian

These create verbs describing the action of the agent (usually one's self). The reflexive verb is always intransitive and nearly always ends with an -ik suffix (the so-called -ik verbs).


-keta 1) search; 2) large amount of; 3) activity; 4) season, weather 5) competition

Chukchee-Kamchatkan (??)

*-cit- mutual action (обоюдное действие) /Proto Chukchee-Koryak [ss: PN233]

-cit- /Chukchee; -cit- /Koryak; -cit- /Alutor [ss]

ha if; when /Hungarian


One official source says Hungarian ha is derived from a F-U root. [Chong]
Another source says it is possibly related to hogy "how". [Chong]

{Hungarian /gy/ like palatised /d'/}

-ko interrogative suffix /Vaddja [fv]


ic, ix and [pa]; as, how, if, like [az96, mp68, pa, dep]
ic, ich, ichnac how [lb]
ica, ika this [lb]

Etruscan /c/ like /k/ while /x/ like aspirated /k/



ke, ka if; or /Pashto [tr]


∂g∂ if [mab]


-ha (?), -?a(?) interrogative suffix [y84]


-o interrogative suffix /Manchu [as]

há-ny ( = interrogative) how many? /Hungarian


*nk ? Uralic plural

nk, k Hungarian plural

ahány (rel. pron.) as many /Hungarian

{/a-/ prefix forms rel. pronouns from int. pronouns.}

annyi as much as /Hungarian

{Hungarian /ny/ similar to Basque or Spanish /ñ/}


ene Sumerian plural


änjä so much as {I:747 Sagay dialect} [kl]


ain (B,G) (adv.) "so"; hain (L,LN,Z,U) (adv.) so; so much; such; hoin (L,LN,Z)
aina (B,G) (adv.) as much as; haina (conj.) as much as


onoliko as much, so much, as many, so many /Serbo-Croatian


haymas, hain-mas how (much or many) [y84]

hogy how, that /Hungarian {/gy/ same as palatised /d'/}


hotj (conj) although /Vaddja [fv]

hog how; that /Old Hungarian {12th. Century} [gzb1]
hoģ how; that /Old Hungarian (16th. Century) [bm]

Origin of Hungarian hogy is FU. [Chong]

*ku where /Proto FU [Chong]

kuze how (Mari); koda how (Mordvin) [Chong]

kõda' how; koj@t what kind of... (Kamas); hunc'er' how; hun'angy which (N'en'ec'); kutar how (Šölqup) [Chong]

{Hungarian /gy/ like palatised /d'/}

Yukaghir [emas]

quode 'how?'

Niger-Congo (?)

kaatu (conj) because /Mandinka [pc1]


Classical Greek [lsj1]

hôs (relat. and interrog.), how
hôs (conjunction) with Substantive clauses, to express a fact, = hoti, that.


ŭt (or ŭti)

(1) with indic. verb how (interrog. and exclam.)
(2) with subjunctive: in indirect question, how etc.

quod (conj.) the fact that, whereas; because; etc; quŏt (indecl.) how many


kuit (conj.) because, since /Hittite [ho]

kot 'how' /Lydian [cb2]

{IE *kw- (interrogative pronoun stem), Hittite kuwat (how)}[cb2]


kathám [Vedic kathā'] (interr. adv.) how?, in what way? /Sanskrit

hol where? /Hungarian


Hungarian hol and hova are officially derived from FU. [Chong]

*ku where /Proto FU [Chong]

Yukaghir [emas]

qol- where?

hova whither?, where to? /Hungarian


Hungarian hova and hol are officially derived from FU. [Chong]

*ku where /Proto FU [Chong]


Cognate Set <Sasse (1983) , p. 262 #> [oi4]

Cushitic, East

haba'lla where /Burji
ha'ba where /Darasa


aba where? /Manchu [as]
ai ba where? /Manchu [as]
ya ba, yaba where? what place?; yabade where? to what place? /Manchu [as]




(1) rel. adv. and conj., where, when
(2) interrog. adv. and conj., where?

quo (adv.) where

As in 'QuoVadis?- Whither goest thou? or Where are you going?'


kvà, [Vedic kúa], (adv.) where? whither? /Sanskrit

-i suffix 'from' used with families named after towns and places /Hungarian


In Hungarian, family or surnames tend to be listed before first names. The family name is used as an adjective describing which person one is referring to.

In old documents the place of origin of a person was also added before the family name! The place name suffixed with -i is another adjective to define which family one is referring to.

For example, Borsodi Forgács Péter means "Péter of the Forgács family in or from the county of Borsod". It is possible to have a family name which is also the place name (of origin) as for example, Szegedi Mária. In Mária's case her surname means "of or from the city of Szeged".

Compare the similar Iranian suffix -i in the example below.


i suffix used with "place" meaning "where" or "time" meaning "when". [sm]


-i suffix used with towns named after families [lrp 57]



o from /Gaelic, ó /Irish, ó, ua (, hua) /Old Irish [mcb]

Indo-Iranian/Iranian/Persian (Farsi) [fjs]

bafaqi "Of or born in Bafaq"
babili "Of or belonging to Babylon"; etc.

ilyen, olyan such, of this kind, so, like this, that; ilyesmi like this /Hungarian


olako (B,G) that kind of
olan (B) adv. like this, so, like so, in this manner, like that, thus
olantxe (B) in this way, just so

Dravidian pair (S.I.I. ii,226)(Tamil.lex.) ol, olu, o_l, o_lu, po_l, ho_l, pol, polu likeness, correspondence, equality; like, as; as if; so that; o_rage similarity; ore id. (Kannad.a)(Ka.lex.) po_l (po_lv-, po_n-r--) to resemble, be like, similar, equal, match; a particle of comparison (also po_la); po_li person or thing that is equal, similarity, likeness, pretence, hypocrisy; po_limai similarity (Tamil); po_luka to resemble; po_la, po_l, po_le_ like (Malayalam); po_lke, po_lve resemblance; po_lisu to cause to resemble, compare; pol to be fit or proper; excel; o_l(u), ol(u), vo_l, vol(u) likeness, equality (Kannad.a); po.le like (Kod.agu); po_lu to resemble; be, exist, be good, beautiful, agreeable or well, be fit, proper, be possible; n. beauty, agreeableness, fitness, propriety (Telugu); po_lika, po_like, po_lki resemblance; po_l(u)cu to compare, liken, recognize, identify; po_ni resembling, similar, like; bo~_t.i id., equal; po~_d.i beauty, elegance (Telugu.); bo_l-e_r to resemble (Gadba); poli'nai to compare (Kuwi)(DEDR 4597).

ho_like, po_lke, ho_luvike, ho_luve, ho_luvike resemblance, similitutde, likeness (Kannad.a); ho_l, po_l, ho_lu to be like, resemble (Kannad.a.lex.); po_l to resemble; to be like; similar (Kur-al., 1071); to equal, match (Tamil); a particle of comparison (Kur-al., 118); po_lu (Telugu); po_l (Kannad.a); po_luga (Malayalam); ho_lu (Tulu); po_la a particle of comparison (Toll. Po. 291); po_li similarity (Tol. Po. 300, Urai.)(Tamil.lex.) [sk]

innen from here; from this place /Hungarian
onnan from there; honnan where from; whence /Hungarian


ina in, by, from /Akkadian [oi3]


in-ani from this; from here [ryan]


hunak(ka) where [sm]


Japanese innen can be used to form such concepts as "cause; providence; causality; karma[-relation]; fatality; fate; destiny; affinity; connection; origin; history"


honen adj./pron. (genit.) of this, of this one; adv. so, such; adv. at such and such a time;
honi adj./pron. (dat.) to this; to this one;
onen adj./pron. (genit.) of this; of this one


ongân from that direction /Brahui

ini hereafter, from here onwards (of place) /Tamil [bur]
ini henceforth, yet, still, more /Malayaman [bur]
ïn other; hereafter /Toda [bur]
inu, innu still, yet, moreover, hence, hereafter /Kannad.a [bur]
iññi hereafter; again /Kod.agu [bur]



? nunn over, beyond /Gaelic, Irish anonn, Old L. inunn; from the prep. an (see a) and sund, here ("from here"), Welsh hwnt, Breton hont: (so-u-to-s), this. The pronominal forms beginning in so and to, or s and t without o, are all from the roots so and to ultimately [from mcb]


heonon from here [ws]; hence [sc1] /Old English
hwonan (hwanan) adv where from; whence [sc1] /Old English

Interrogative Pronoun

ki who /Hungarian


Hungarian ki is officially of FU origin.

*ken (Proto Uralic) [Chong]

kes (Estonian); ken (Finnish); kin (Komi, Udmurt); gi (Lappish); ke (Mari); ki (Mordvin) [Chong]

Niger-Congo (?)

gu (rp) which, who, whom /Wollof [pc2]


*k`a(j) who, interrogative pronoun /Altaic [ss]

*kem, *Ka- 1 who 2 which /Turkic [ss]

kim 1, qaju 2 /Old Turkic; kim 1 /Turkish; kem 1 /Tatar; kim 1 /Azeri; kim 1 /Turkmen; kam 1 /Chuvash; kim 1 /Yakut [ss]

*ken, *ka- who /Mongolian [ss]

*xia (*xai) 1 what 2 who /Tungus [ss]

*ka interrogative particle /Korean [ss]

-ka,-ga Modern Korean; -ka Middle Korean [ss]

*ka interrogative particle /Japanese [ss]

-ka /Old Japanese; -ka /Tokyo [ss]


*kwi who, which (interrogative pronoun) /North Caucasian [ss]

*kV- interrogative stem /Andian [ss]

ki- /Avar [ss]

cu-ku-n-s:a which /Lak [ss]

*kV- where /Dargwa [ss]

ka-la /Chiragh [ss]

*kw|i who /Lezghian [ss]

kw|i Archi [ss]

kla who /Khinalug [ss]




ci, ki who, what, which /Avestan

k∂y (interr ) who? /Baluchi [mab]
ky conj that (conj.), as, who, which /Baluchi [mab]


who /Sanskrit

Pronominal Possessive

kié whose /Hungarian


kenen whose /Finnish; kelle whose /Estonian

Hungarian kié is formed from the Interrogative Pronoun ki 'who' + the Possession suffix and sounds almost like KEEYEH


kimin whose



i/e kujt? whose


cūius (quoius) -a -um 'whose?' /Latin

cuyo -a whose /Old Spanish [osr]
cuyo 'whose' /Spanish


чей, чья, чьё, чьи (poss. pronoun) whose /Russian

chej, ch'ya, ch'ё, ch'i whose /Russian

čyj whose /Belarus

чий, чия, чие, чии whose /Bulgar

chij, chiia, chie, chii whose /Bulgar

"cija, "cije, "ciji, koga, koje whose /Serbo-Croatian

jehož, čí, koho, kterého, jejíž, jejichž, jejíchž whose /Cheh

čí, ktorého, koho whose /Slovak

kura, kuru, ka /Latvian

köz- common, shared; public; "together with" /Hungarian


*kite, kiteppe central /Proto FU [Chong]

köˆt interspace; (the) middle /Khanty; kwät'l middle /Man's'i [Chong]

kooza (adv.) together, jointly; kooza (prp.) together (+com) /Vaddja [fv]

köz-igaz-gat-ás administration; local government; köz-jog common law /Hungarian
köz-kincs public property; köz-rend public order /Hungarian
köz-társaság republic; common wealth /Hungarian
közön-ség public; audience; közön-es common; general; usual /Hungarian
közös common, national közös-ség community /Hungarian
közép middle, centre /Hungarian


kozoru to bring together /Japanese
kozotte in a body; en masse; as one man; unanimously; as a unit; solidly /Japanese


-gaz 'with' comitative suffix found in the Bizkaian dialect in the west /Basque

"Interestingly, the Bizkaian dialect in the west has the quite different comitative suffix <-gaz>, which behaves in an anomalous way among case-suffixes and looks very much like a formerly independent element which has been abruptly glued onto a preceding noun phrase with no case-marking. The origin of this is unknown, but it seems to contain the suffix <-z> (phonetic [-s]). This thing is today the ordinary instrumental suffix in all varieties, but, in early Basque, it appears in a variety of forms in which it arguably has a comitative function. Some of us therefore suspect -- but cannot demonstrate -- that this <-z> was once the ordinary comitative suffix, but that it has become specialized as an instrumental with the rise of the new comitative formations." [lt3]


ceus "family, companion" [az96]
ceusn "family, community" [az96]
< *kiw-is [az96]
cisuita, cisvita "belonging to the clan, community" [az96]
cisum "(part) of the family" [az96]


kTTãna, kTTa (A) relatives /Lycian [cb]

mag-a you, self; mag-án (-ember) private (person); mag-ány solitude; lonely /Hungarian
mag-am me; myself /Hungarian


Some think these Hungarian words may be linked to mag "seed". [Chong]


migara one's person /Japanese
waga my; our; one’s own; wagami oneself; myself /Japanese


machánhkàssi to be by himself/herself/itself, single /Alabama [tm]

"Similar", but note the etymology of this {ma- /chánhka-osi-hchi} [tm]

mellé, mellett beside, next to; mellék by; secondary /Hungarian


mala other, next, second (in compounds., e.g. mala-tande step-father, malacu_lu second pregnancy, second child) /Kannad.a; malu next, second /Telugu; mar.u another, other, next (Tamil, Malayalam, Kannad.a); mar id. (Kota) [sk]

mi we /Hungarian


*m8" (Proto FU) [Chong]

müü (prn.) we /Vaddja [fv]



ma we /Baluchi [mab]
pro. we, plural of man /(Northern) Baluchi [mld]


mi· , me· we (inclusive agent) [y84]

mi, mit what? /Hungarian
miért why?; what for? /Hungarian
milyen what?; what kind/sort of ?/Hungarian
minek what for /Hungarian


mi (prn.) what (inter.); mid (prn.) what (pl. inter.) /Vaddja [fv]
mihee (adv.) why /Vaddja [fv]
millin (prn.) what kind (inter.) /Vaddja [fv]
minee (adv.) what for /Vaddja [fv]

me (prn.) what /Erzya [fv]



m who, what /Old Egyptian [cgj]


mз which, what, who (rel. pronouns) /Phœnician [cgj]

Cognate Set <Newman et al. (1966) , #117> [oi4]


m@ni what? /Bata; mi-ge /Masa (Banana); midi /Gidar; mee, mii /Hausa; mira /Margi; ma /Musgu; ni /Ngamo; n@m /Tera; me /Angas; mini /Buduma

mint like, than /Hungarian


ma¥nit like... (Man's'i) [Chong]
minta approximate (Nganasan) [Chong]

Officially, Hungarian mint is derived from mi "what". [Chong]


àm who, which, what; (same) as, like (in scholarly lists). [jh]



monand like... (Turkish, Uzbek) [Chong]

mondïx such, so, thus, like this /Khakas [kl]

Niger-Congo (?)

munta (adv) look, looklike /Mandinka [pc1]

Muskogean/Eastern (??)

mìnta 1. another, other, else, different one, another one; 2. to be different (from before), be otherwise, be another /Alabama [tm]

möge, mögött behind; mögül from behind /Hungarian


*müngä rear (Proto FU) [Chong]


maka backwards [sm]


*no>k / *no>n| back /Sino-Tibetan [ss]

nog cervical vertebra; hump of a camel. /Tibetan [ss]

nauk space behind, LB *snukx; @hnaun|? the back of a knife, hnaun|h be after (in time), posterior. /Burmese [ss]

hnun| the back /Lushei [ss]


*=Vq_V behind /North Caucasian [ss]

*-Vq:(i) 1 behind 2 locative suffix /Andian [ss]

na/q:a 1, -q: 2 /Avar

The initial nasal in Avar (n- or m- in different dialects) is not quite clear etymologically. The original meaning of the morpheme ('behind') is preserved when it functions as an adverb; but as a locative suffix it had early (as early as Proto-Av.-And.) merged with another morpheme, PEC *-q._V (q.v.) and thus acquired a new meaning 'at, by, close to'. [ss]

*mo>GwV (~-a":-) back; body /North Caucasian [ss]

*miG|w|V(-l) back /Andian [ss]

muG| Avar; miG|ul Andi; muG|ul Karata; muG|ul Bagvalal; muG|ul Godoberi [ss]

*mo|G|:u (~-x|-) body /Tsezian [ss]

maG|o Bezhita; mo|G|u Gunzib [ss]


*magVd.- to turn /Dravidian [ss]

mugud.a to turn back (Tulu.lex.); to cause the face to go or turn backwards; to turn away, to avert /Kannad.a; magacu, magucu,, mogacu, mogucu to turn round; to return; to turn upside down (Kannad.a lex.) magud.u to turn round /Telugu; …… [sk]

-og verbal suffix "do, make" /Hungarian
ok, a reason, a cause; ok-oz to cause, make /Hungarian


-kk /Uralic [fh16]

also see Hungarian akar "wish,desire, etc."


-ag, -ak verbal prefix to do, make [hh96]
aka, ak, ag, a5 to do, act; to place; to make into (something) [jh]


aga work, to work, to make, to build. O te Atua i aga ai i te ragi, i te henua God make heaven and earth. /Rapanui [anon]

/g/ represents the sound /ng/ as in English <sing> [anon]


ika, acika, arika permissive or causative affix: senikaime let him go; send him (Mun.d.a_ri) (Mun.d.a_ri lex.) [sk]


Cognate Set <Dolgopol'skij (1973) , p. 131 #2> [oi4]

Cushitic, Agaw

ag- ag*- be /Kemant; ag- ak- /Xamta; ax- *P /Awngi; ag*- be(come) /Bilin; ag*- ay- be /Qwara; ag*- /Xamir

Cushitic, East

ah- be /Somali; ih- become /Burji; ik- /Sidamo; ik- /Darasa; ik- /Kambata; ik- /Alaba; ik- Hadiyya


*uč`e reason /Altaic [ss]

*üč-ün because of, for the sake of /Turc
*učir cause, reason /Mongol
*uč- 1 cause, fate 2 time, season /Tungus
*áčh reason /Korean [ss]


*=Ho>q.E: to do, make; to be, become /North Caucasian [ss]

*=o|q- B 1 to become; to be born 2 to grow /Tsezian [ss]

=oqI- 1 /Tsezi; =u"q- 1 /Ginukh; eqq- /Khvarshi; =eqIw|- 1, l-eqw|- 2 /Inkhokvari; =aq- 1 /Bezhita; =o|q- 1 /Gunzib [ss]

*=a(r)q.- / *=i(r)q.- to do, to make /Dargwa [ss]

=arq.- / =irq.- /Chiragh [ss]

*?aq.a- to do, to make /Lezghian [ss]

aq.- /Agul [ss]

q.i to be, to become /Khinalug [ss]

*q/:Ia 1 to be 2 to have /Abkhaz-Adyghe [ss]

a/-q.a-la-ra 1 /Abkhaz; a-?a-z-la-ra 1 /Abaza; -?a- 1,2 /Adyghe; -?a- 1,2 /Circassian; q.a-G|- 2 /Ubykh [ss]


a_kku (a_kki-) to effect, make, cause to be, create, arrange; creation; a_kkam creation, increase, prosperity; a_kkan- that which is artificial; a_kkiyo_n- creator, author of a book; a_kkum perhaps, indeed; a_ka completely, in that fashion, adverbial suffix /Tamil; a_kuka to be that, become that, be what it ought to be, to be right, be possible; a_kkuka to make to be that; place, put, employ; a_kkikka to cause to make; a_kkam what one puts, contentment, strength, continuance; a_ka altogether, being, so as to be /Malayalam; a.g- (a.y-/a.n-; some forms from a.-; gerunds a.r.y, a.t.y) to become; a.k- (a.yk-) to make to become, prepare (Ko.); a_gu (a_n-, a_y-, etc.), agu (rare) to come into existence, happen, become, prove, to be, be, etc.; n. becoming, coming to pass; a_gisu to cause to become, bring about, perform; a_guvike, a_guha becoming, happening, etc.; -a_gi adverbial suffix; a_m. interj. of assent of recollection /Kannad.a [sk]

a_kka to cause (Tamil) (Mun.d.a_ri lex.) [sk]

(1) Indo-European

Indo-Iranian/Iranian [ak1]

Balochi suffix -ag

It seems that the popular Old Iranian suffix -aka- which in Iranian languages could be attached to any noun without noticeable change of meaning comes out as Balochi -ag

The infinitive in most Balochi dialects also shows this suffix which is attached to the present stem, e.g. kan-ag "to do", war-ag "to eat".

(2) Indo-European


*ag'- 'to do, to lead' /Proto IE [cb]


actud, acum to do /Oscan [cb]
agere to do /Latin [cb]

saj-át own {-in person, etc.} /Hungarian


Hungarian origin unknown. [Chong]


*s/@j private, oneself /Sino-Tibetan [ss]

Chinese "be private; sister's husband" [ss]
si 1 /Modern (Beijing) < sji /Middle Chinese < s@j /Old Chinese [ss]

s/e, s/e-dag, s/a-sdag for oneself only, only, privately /Tibetan [ss]

sok many, much, a lot; sok-szor often; many times /Hungarian


tsek, cok, sok, sau /Ugor; tšek thick /FU Z; čoka thick /FU Ch [hh96]


súb, súg, su8 , said of two or more, such as a herd [jh]

Niger-Congo (?)

sako (adv) much more /Mandinka [pc1]


šgy many /Phœnician [cgj]


*cho:k crowd, group, clan /Sino-Tibetan [ss]

Meaning "clan, family; clansmen, troops belonging to a clan"
zu 2 /Modern (Beijing) < z|uk /Middle Chinese < z|(h)o:k /Old Chinese
tō.c /Vietnamese

chogs an assemblage of men, ãchogs (p., i. chogs) to assemble, gather, meet. /Tibetan [ss]

(?) sak2 to crowd; to fill by urging or pressing /Kachin [ss]

*c/o>k ( ~ z|/-) enough, sufficient /Sino-Tibetan [ss]


*č`ák`o many/Altaic [ss]

chōka excess /Japanese
chōki long term; time /Japanese
sūkai several times; repeatedly; often; frequently /Japanese

çuk-la much, many /Chuvash; çok much, many /Turkic [hh96]


*ĉ.H@qwV big /North Caucasian [ss]

*-iĉ.ux|a (~-q-) 1 big 2 large, big (adv.) 3 high, tall /Andian [ss]

ĉ.ah_a/- 2 /Avar; -eĉ.ux|a 1 /Andi; hiĉ.ux|a-b (Anch) 1 /Karata;
-eĉ.ux|a 1 /Botlikh; -eĉ.ux|a 1 /Godoberi [ss]

ĉ.aI-u-s:a many /Lak [ss]

*ĉaqw|- high /Dargwa [ss]

ĉaqw|-ze /Chiragh [ss]

*ĉ.ax|V (~-a"-) 1 big 2 large, massive /Lezghian [ss]

ĉ.ex|i 1 /Lezghi; ĉ.atx|u 2 /Tabasaran [ss]

*ĉw|@x|w|a 1 big 2 strong /Abkhaz-Adyghe [ss]

-ŝxw|a 1 /Adyghe; -ŝxw|a 1 /Circassian; ŝx|w|a 2 /Ubykh [ss]


sikka a. (sisikka) big; huge; great [ud]

-t, -tt suffix used to express the past tense /Hungarian


Modern Hungarian has only one past tense. There is no (plu)perfect nor imperfect which are expressed by that one tense. For example

ül sit; ült sat
mond say; mondott said



English has a 'similar' mechanism for expressing the past tense where the root remains unchanged in order to form the past tense; for example

play; play-ed
kill; kill-ed

Indo-Iranian/Iranian [ak2]

Balochi past stem which ends in -t

simple past (e.g. gušt "said"), past subjunctive (bu-gušt-ēn- "should have said"), and also encompass the tenses formed from the perfect stem (ending in -t-ag- if a suffix follows, otherwise in -t-a), i.e. present perfect (gušt-a "has said"), past perfect (gušt-a bīt-a / gušt-ag-at / gušt-ag-ā "had said").

után after /Hungarian


-a-ta after [jh]


otte later on; afterwards; soon after /Japanese



Sanskrit udán; further [from mcb: uisg, uisge]

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Additions by Fred Hámori in red

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Last updated 23August 2011